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Research Papers

Design and Validation of a High-Temperature Thermal Interface Resistance Measurement System

[+] Author and Article Information
Menglong Hao

Birck Nanotechnology Center,
and School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
1205 West State Street,
West Lafayette, IN 47906
e-mail: haom@purdue.edu

Kimberly R. Saviers

Mem. ASME
Birck Nanotechnology Center,
and School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
1205 West State Street,
West Lafayette, IN 47906
e-mail: ksaviers@purdue.edu

Timothy S. Fisher

Mem. ASME
Birck Nanotechnology Center,
and School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
1205 West State Street,
West Lafayette, IN 47906
e-mail: tsfisher@purdue.edu

1M. Hao and K. R. Saviers contributed equally to this work.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received November 4, 2015; final manuscript received February 19, 2016; published online April 19, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Samuel Sami.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 8(3), 031008 (Apr 19, 2016) (7 pages) Paper No: TSEA-15-1315; doi: 10.1115/1.4033011 History: Received November 04, 2015; Revised February 19, 2016

In order to measure thermal interface resistance (TIR) at temperatures up to 700 °C, a test apparatus based on two copper 1D reference bars has been developed. Design details are presented with an emphasis on how the system minimizes the adverse effects of heat losses by convection and radiation on measurement accuracy. Profilometer measurements of the contacting surface are presented to characterize surface roughness and flatness. A Monte Carlo method is applied to quantify experimental uncertainties, resulting in a standard deviation of thermal resistance as low as 2.5 mm2 K/W at 700 °C. In addition, cyclic measurements of a standard thermal interface material (TIM) sample (graphite foil) are presented up to an interface temperature of 400 °C. The interface resistance results range between approximately 40 and 100 mm2 K/W. Further, a bare Cu–Cu interface is evaluated at several interface temperatures up to 700 °C.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Schematic and (b) photograph of the test system. Cross-sectional area the reference bars is 1 × 1 cm2. The nominal height of the reference bar section is 10 cm with no TIM.

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Fig. 2

Temperature profiles for a bare Cu–Cu interface. The height is reported relative to the interface location.

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Fig. 3

Optical profilometer contour plot of a contacting Cu surface in the test system

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Fig. 4

Surface profile across the Cu contacting surface, measured relative to the highest point. Inset: The same data displayed on a larger scale to visualize the surface roughness and flatness compared to the thickness of a typical interface material.

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Fig. 5

Linear fit of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of Cu [23]

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Fig. 6

Example distribution of results from 400 virtual experiments. A histogram and corresponding normal distribution probability density function are shown.

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Fig. 7

Standard deviation for a simulated sample with 10 mm2 K/W measured at various temperatures, as calculated by Monte Carlo simulation

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Fig. 8

Cyclic thermal measurement on 127-μm-thick graphite film. Error bars are included only for the first cycle for clarity.

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Fig. 9

Optical profilometer image of the full Cu contacting surface

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Fig. 10

Reflectivity spectrum of Cu. The different curves correspond to three different measurements.

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