0
Research Papers

An Approach to Heat Transfer Analysis of Wire Loops Over the Stelmor Conveyor to Predict the Microstructural and Mechanical Attributes of Steel Rods

[+] Author and Article Information
Ishant Jain

Raychem Innovation Center,
Halol, Gujarat 389350, India
e-mail: ishantmiet@gmail.com

Shaumik Lenka

Tata Steel Limited,
R&D Building, Jamshedpur,
Jharkhand 831007, India
e-mail: shaumik.lenka@tatasteel.com

Satish Kumar Ajmani

Tata Steel Limited,
R&D Building, Jamshedpur,
Jharkhand 831007, India
e-mail: skajmani@tatasteel.com

Saurabh Kundu

Tata Steel Limited,
R&D Building, Jamshedpur,
Jharkhand 831007, India
e-mail: saurabh.Kundu@tatasteel.com

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received March 5, 2015; final manuscript received January 26, 2016; published online March 1, 2016. Assoc. Editor: W. J. Marner.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 8(2), 021019 (Mar 01, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: TSEA-15-1065; doi: 10.1115/1.4032709 History: Received March 05, 2015; Revised January 26, 2016

To understand and predict the microstructure evolution in various grades of steel, a heat transfer coupled with phase transformation model has been formulated with an enhanced stelmor cooling module. This module is capable of handling both blower assisted high cooling and retarded cooling using hoods. The stelmor module incorporates the change in ring spacing of the wire loops on the stelmor due to a change in mill speed and conveyor speed of the wire rod mill. A geometrical approach to convective and radiative losses taking into account the void fraction and shape factor of wire loop is reported. This makes the model robust by strengthening the heat transfer formulation. This paper deals with the correlation of wire rod mill process parameters on the cooling curve of wire rods. The cooling of wire rods is dependent on the stelmor operating parameters. Commercial high carbon grades require high capacity blowers for efficient cooling to refine the pearlite microstructure and impart greater strength. Welding grade wire rods (low carbon grades) on the other hand require retarded cooling to increase the ferrite grain size and decrease the ultimate tensile strength.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Wright, R. N. , 2010, Wire Technology: Process Engineering and Metallurgy, 1st ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
Krauss, G. , 2005, Steels: Processing, Structure, and Performance, 1st ed., ASM International, Materials Park, OH.
Goto, S. , Kirchheim, R. , Al-Kassab, T. , and Borchers, C. , 2007, “ Application of Cold Drawn Lamellar Microstructure for Developing Ultra-High Strength Wires,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 17(6), pp. 1129–1138. [CrossRef]
Tarui, T. , Maruyama, N. , Takahashi, J. , Nishida, S. , and Tashiro, H. , 2005, “ Microstructure Control and Strengthening of High-Carbon Steel Wires,” Report No. 91, pp. 56–61. http://www.nssmc.com/en/tech/report/nsc/pdf/n9112.pdf
International, A. , 2012, “ Standard Specification for Steel Strand, Uncoated Seven-Wire for Prestressed Concrete,” ASTM Standard A416/A416M.
Marder, A. R. , and Bramfitt, B. L. , 1976, “ The Effect of Morphology on the Strength of Pearlite,” Metall. Trans. A, 7(3), pp. 365–372. [CrossRef]
Porter, D. A. , Easterling, K. E. , and Smith, G. D. W. , 1978, “ Dynamic Studies of the Tensile Deformation and Fracture of Pearlite,” Acta Metall., 26(9), pp. 1405–1422. [CrossRef]
Kramer, J. , Pound, G. , and Mehl, R. , 1958, “ The Free Energy of Formation and the Interfacial Enthalpy in Pearlite,” Acta Metall., 6(12), pp. 763–771. [CrossRef]
Campbell, P. C. , Hawbolt, E. B. , and Brimacombe, J. K. , 1991, “ Microstructural Engineering Applied to the Controlled Cooling of Steel Wire Rod: Part I. Experimental Design and Heat Transfer,” Metall. Trans. A, 22(11), pp. 2769–2778. [CrossRef]
Campbell, P. C. , Hawbolt, E. B. , and Brimacombe, J. K. , 1991, “ Microstructural Engineering Applied to the Controlled Cooling of Steel Wire Rod: Part II. Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties Correlations,” Metall. Trans. A, 22(11), pp. 2779–2790. [CrossRef]
Campbell, P. C. , Hawbolt, E. B. , and Brimacombe, J. K. , 1991, “ Microstructural Engineering Applied to the Controlled Cooling of Steel Wire Rod: Part III. Mathematical Model-Formulation and Predictions,” Metall. Trans. A, 22(11), pp. 2791–2805. [CrossRef]
Nobari, A. H. , and Serajzadeh, S. , 2011, “ Modeling of Heat Transfer During Controlled Cooling in Hot Rod Rolling of Carbon Steels,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31(4), pp. 487–492. [CrossRef]
Lenka, S. , Kundu, S. , Chandra, S. , and Singh, S. B. , 2013, “ Effect of Recalescence on Microstructure and Phase Transformation in High Carbon Steel,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 29(6), pp. 715–725. [CrossRef]
Agarwal, P. K. , and Brimacombe, J. K. , 1981, “ Mathematical Model of Heat Flow and Austenite-Pearlite Transformation in Eutectoid Carbon Steel Rods for Wire,” Metall. Trans. B, 12(1), pp. 121–133. [CrossRef]
Marder, A. R. , and Bramfitt, B. L. , 1975, “ Effect of Continuous Cooling on the Morphology and Kinetics of Pearlite,” Metall. Trans. A, 6(11), pp. 2009–2014. [CrossRef]
Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H. , 2008, “ Mathematical Models in Materials Science,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 24(2), pp. 128–136. [CrossRef]
Ishikawa, N. , Parks, D. M. , Socrate, S. , and Kurihara, M. , 2000, “ Micromechanical Modeling of Ferrite-Pearlite Steels Using Finite Element Unit Cell Models,” ISIJ Int., 40(11), pp. 1170–1179. [CrossRef]
Kazeminezhad, M. , and Karimi Taheri, A. , 2003, “ The Effect of Controlled Cooling After Hot Rolling on the Mechanical Properties of a Commercial High Carbon Steel Wire Rod,” Mater. Des., 24(6), pp. 415–421. [CrossRef]
Patankar, S. , 1980, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, 1st ed., Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
Linnert, G. , and Society, A. W. , 1967, Welding Metallurgy: Fundamentals, Vol. 1, 1st ed., American Welding Society, Miami, FL.
Lindemann, A. , and Schmidt, J. , 2005, “ ACMOD-2D—A Heat Transfer Model for the Simulation of the Cooling of Wire Rod,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 169(3), pp. 466–475. [CrossRef]
Poirier, D. R. , and Geiger, G. H. , 2013, Transport Phenomena in Materials Processing, 2nd ed. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Lindemann, A. , Schmidt, J. , and Boye, H. , 2002, “ Numerical Simulation and Infrared-Thermographic Measurement of the Cooling of Wire Rod,” Heat Transfer, 4, pp. 735–740.
Bird, R. B. , Stewart, W. E. , and Lightfoot, E. N. , 2007, Transport Phenomena, 2nd ed., Wiley, New York.
Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H. , and Honeycombe, S. R. , 2006, Steels, Microstructure and Properties, 3rd ed., Elsevier Ltd., Oxford, UK.
Johnson, W. A. , and Mehl, R. F. , 1939, “ Reaction Kinetics in Processes of Nucleation and Growth,” Trans. AIME, 135(8), pp. 396–415.
Avrami, M. , 1939, “ Kinetics of Phase Change. I. General Theory,” J. Chem. Phys., 7(12), pp. 1103–1112. [CrossRef]
Avrami, M. , 1941, “ Granulation, Phase Change, and Microstructure Kinetics of Phase Change. III,” J. Chem. Phys., 9(2), pp. 177–184. [CrossRef]
Cahn, J. W. , 1956, “ Transformation Kinetics During Continuous Cooling,” Acta Metall., 4(6), pp. 572–575. [CrossRef]
Donnay, B. , Herman, J. C. , Leroy, V. , Lotter, U. , Grossterlinden, R. , and Pircher, H. , 1996, “ Microstructure Evolution of C-Mn Steels in the Hot-Deformation Process: The Stripcam Model,” 2nd International Conference on Modeling of Metal Rolling Processes, pp. 23–35.
Jena, A. K. , and Chaturvedi, M. C. , 1992, Phase Transformations in Materials, 1st ed., Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Scheil, E. , 1935, “ Anlaufzeit der austenitumwandlung,” Arch. Eisenhuettenwes., 8(12), pp. 565–567.
Todinov, M. T. , 1998, “ Alternative Approach to the Problem of Additivity,” Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 29(1), pp. 269–273. [CrossRef]
Barin, I. , and Knacke, O. , 1973, Thermochemical Properties of Inorganic Substances, 1st ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Darken, L. S. , and Gurry, R. W. , 1953, Physical Chemistry of Metals, 1st ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
Leslie, W. C. , 1981, The Physical Metallurgy of Steels, 1st ed., Hemisphere, London.
Pickering, F. B. , 1978, Physical Metallurgy and the Design of Steels, 1st ed., Applied Science Publishers, London.
Gorni, A. A. , 2004, Steel Forming and Heat Treating, Sao Vicente SP, Brazil.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the stelmor conveyor layout for a wire rod mill

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Wire loop schematic on a stelmor conveyor during high carbon wire rod rolling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Wire loop schematic on a stelmor conveyor during low carbon wire rod (electrode grade) rolling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Cross section schematic of wire loop

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Top view of the wire section over the stelmor conveyor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Schematic of the third quadrant of the wire loop

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Enclosed volumes between wire sections 1, 2, and 3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The finite element mesh for the heat transfer and phase transformation model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Validation of cooling curve predicted using model with the measured values for an 8 mm high carbon wire rod

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Validation of cooling curve predicted using model with the measured values for a 5.5 mm high carbon wire rod

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of heat transfer coefficient of Campbell et al. [911] and stelmor model incorporated in the thermomechanical rolling simulator for the 3-9 O'clock positions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison of heat transfer coefficient of Campbell et al. [911] and stelmor model incorporated in the thermomechanical rolling simulator for the 6-12 O'clock positions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Model predicted cooling profile at the 3 and 9 O'clock positions with respect to dwell time on the conveyor for a 5.5 mm high carbon wire rod

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Model predicted cooling profile at the 6 and 12 O'clock positions with respect to dwell time on the conveyor for a 5.5 mm high carbon wire rod

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Model predicted cooling profile at the 3 and 9 O'clock positions with respect to distance on the conveyor for a 5.5 mm high carbon wire rod

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Model predicted cooling profile at the 6 and 12 O'clock positions with respect to distance on the conveyor for a 5.5 mm high carbon wire rod

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Scanning electron microstructure of pearlite for trial 2 at: (a) the 6–12 O'clock positions and (b) the 3–9 O'clock positions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Cooling profile for retarded cooling of the low carbon electrode quality wire rods for the 3-9 O'clock and 6-12 O'clock positions. The points marked A and B show the ferrite transformation finish and pearlite transformation start for the 3–9 O'clock positions and the 6–12 O'clock positions, respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Ferrite–pearlite microstructure of the low carbon electrode grade wire rod produced by retarded cooling on the stelmor

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In