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Research Papers

Measurements of Densities of Propylene Glycol-Based Nanofluids and Comparison With Theory

[+] Author and Article Information
Jagannadha R. Satti

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Alaska Fairbanks,
P.O. Box 755905,
Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905
e-mail: jrsatti@alaska.edu

Debendra K. Das, Dustin R. Ray

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Alaska Fairbanks,
P.O. Box 755905,
Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received August 5, 2015; final manuscript received December 15, 2015; published online March 1, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Bengt Sunden.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 8(2), 021021 (Mar 01, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: TSEA-15-1210; doi: 10.1115/1.4032671 History: Received August 05, 2015; Revised December 15, 2015

Density measurements were performed on several nanofluids containing nanoscale particles of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), zinc oxide (ZnO), copper oxide (CuO), titanium oxide (TiO2), and silicon dioxide (SiO2). These particles were individually dispersed in a base fluid of 60:40 propylene glycol and water (PG/W) by volume. Additionally, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed in de-ionized water (DI) was also tested. Initially, a benchmark test was performed on the density of the base fluid in the temperature range of 0–90 °C. The measured data agreed within a maximum error of 1.6% with the values presented in the handbook of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). After this validation run, the density measurements of various nanofluids with nanoparticle volumetric concentrations from 0 to 6% and nanoparticle sizes ranging from 10 to 76 nm were performed. The temperature range of the measurements was from 0 to 90 °C. These results were compared with the values predicted by a currently acceptable theoretical equation for nanofluids. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical equation with a maximum deviation of 3.8% for copper oxide nanofluid and average deviation of 0.1% for all the nanofluids tested.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Effect of density on different parameters

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Fig. 2

Nanofluids samples prepared for density measurements

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Fig. 3

TEM images of Al2O3 nanoparticles with APS of 45 nm

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Fig. 4

Density measuring device Anton Paar DMA 4500

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Fig. 5

(a) Comparison of the modified Rackett and Yaws equations for PG/W and EG/W base fluids with ASHRAE data and (b) benchmark test case result for the 60:40 PG/W base fluid

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Fig. 6

Density variation of Al2O3 nanofluid of APS (a) 45 nm, (b) 20 nm, and (c) 10 nm with temperature and volumetric concentration

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Fig. 7

Density variation of ZnO nanofluid of APS (a) 76 nm, (b) 50 nm, and (c) 36 nm with temperature and volumetric concentration

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Fig. 8

Density variation of CuO nanofluid of APS 30 nm with temperature and volumetric concentration

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Fig. 9

Density variation of TiO2 nanofluid with APS 15 nm with temperature and volumetric concentration

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Fig. 10

Density variation of SiO2 nanofluids with APS 30 nm with temperature and volumetric concentration

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Fig. 11

Density variation of different CNT nanofluids with temperature

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Fig. 12

Nanoparticle size effect on density containing (a) Al2O3 and (b) ZnO nanoparticles

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Fig. 13

The agreement between the experimental and theoretical values of nanofluids densities within ± 4%

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