0
Research Papers

Frost Layer Growth Based on High-Resolution Image Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Janssen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street SE,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: janssenda@gmail.com

W. F. Mohs

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street SE,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: william.mohs@skope.co.nz

F. A. Kulacki

Life Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Minnesota,
111 Church Street SE,
Minneapolis, MN 55455
e-mail: kulacki@me.umn.edu

1Present address: SKOPE Ltd., 66 Princess Street, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand.

2Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received April 16, 2015; final manuscript received November 23, 2015; published online February 17, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Pedro Mago.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 8(2), 021018 (Feb 17, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: TSEA-15-1117; doi: 10.1115/1.4032536 History: Received April 16, 2015; Revised November 23, 2015

We report the results of experiments using high-resolution imaging and digital analysis of transient frost growth to obtain quantitative information on frost thickness. The measurement technique provides faster data acquisition and much higher accuracy than traditional approaches. An empirical model of frost growth that captures the fast and slow growth periods is developed based on this data. The key physical and correlating parameter is the ratio of sensible heat transfer-to-total heat transfer, and the growth rate varies inversely with this ratio. The resulting correlation faithfully captures measured growth rates across a wide spectrum of frosting conditions and gives better predictive capability than that of existing correlations. The present model eliminates the need for specifics of the experimental apparatus and test surface as factors in prediction, as well as the necessity of measuring the frost–air interface temperature.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Chen, H. , Thomas, L. , and Besant, R. W. , 2001, “ Modeling Frost Characteristics on Heat Exchanger Fins: Parts I and II (Numerical Model and Experimental Validation),” ASHRAE Trans. Res., 106, pp. 357–376.
Chen, R. , Zhu, K. , Tian, J. , and Hou, X. , 2007, “ An Experimental Study of the Heat-Transfer Performance of Finned-Tube Evaporator Under Low Temperature Frosting Conditions,” International Congress of Refrigeration, Beijing, Paper No. ICR07-B2-552.
Lee, Y. S. , Yoon, S. H. , Gaku, H. , and Cho, K. , 2010, “ Frost Properties on the Fin and Tube Under Heat Pump Condition,” Sustainable Refrigeration and Heat Pump Technology Conference, Stockholm.
Iragorry, J. , Tao, Y.-X. , and Jia, S. , 2004, “ A Critical Review of Properties and Models for Frost Formation Analysis,” HVAC&R Res., 10(4), pp. 393–420. [CrossRef]
Iragorry, J. , and Tao, Y.-X. , 2004, “ Frost Temperature Relations for Defrosting Sensing Systems,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 127(3), pp. 344–351. [CrossRef]
Cremers, C. J. , and Mehra, V. K. , 1980, “ Frost Formation in Vertical Cylinders in Free Convection,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 104(3), pp. 3–7.
Schneider, H. W. , 1978, “ Equation of the Growth Rate of Frost Forming on Cooled Surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 21(8), pp. 1019–1024. [CrossRef]
Fahlen, P. , 1996, Frosting and Defrosting of Air-Coils, Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Building Services Engineering, Goteborg.
Ismail, K. A. R. , and Salinas, C. S. , 1999, “ Modeling of Frost Formation Over Parallel Cold Plates,” Int. J. Refrig., 22(5), pp. 425–441. [CrossRef]
Yun, R. , Kim, Y. , and Min, M. , 2002, “ Modeling of Frost Growth and Frost Properties With Airflow Over a Flat Plate,” Int. J. Refrig., 25(3), pp. 362–371. [CrossRef]
Yang, D. K. , Lee, K. S. , and Cha, D. J. , 2006, “ Frost Formation on a Cold Surface Under Turbulent Flow,” Int. J. Refrig., 29(2), pp. 164–169. [CrossRef]
Sherif, S. A. , Raju, S. P. , Padki, M. N. , and Chan, A. B. , 1993, “ A Semi-Empirical Transient Method for Modeling Frost Formation on a Flat Plate,” Rev. Int. Froid, 16(5), pp. 321–329. [CrossRef]
Yonko, J. D. , and Sepsy, C. F. , 1967, “ An Investigation of the Thermal Conductivity of Frost While Forming on a Flat Horizontal Plate,” ASHRAE Trans., 73(1), pp. 1.1–1.11.
Lee, K. S. , Jhee, S. , and Yang, D. K. , 2003, “ Prediction of the Frost Formation on a Cold Flat Surface,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46(20), pp. 3789–3796. [CrossRef]
Jones, B. W. , and Parker, J. W. , 1975, “ Frost Formation With Varying Environmental Parameters,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 97(2), pp. 255–259. [CrossRef]
Sami, S. M. , and Duong, T. , 1989, “ Mass and Heat Transfer During Frost Growth,” ASHRAE Trans., 95, pp. 158–165.
Yang, D. K. , and Lee, K.-S. , 2004, “ Dimensionless Correlations for Frost Properties on a Cold Plate,” Int. J. Refrig., 27(1), pp. 89–96. [CrossRef]
Wang, W. , Guo, Q. C. , Lu, W. P. , Feng, Y. C. , and Na, W. , 2012, “ A Generalized Simple Model for Predicting Frost Growth on a Flat Plate,” Int. J. Refrig., 35(2), pp. 475–486. [CrossRef]
Yamashita, K. M. , Hamada, S. , Ise, S. , and Ohkubo, H. , 2007, “ Study of Frost Properties in a Low Temperature Environment,” International Congress Refrigeration, Beijing, Paper No. ICR07-B2-809.
Brian, P. L. T. , Reid, R. C. , and Shah, Y. T. , 1970, “ Frost Deposition on Cold Surface,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 9(3), pp. 375–380. [CrossRef]
Liang, C. , Hou, P. , and Yu, W. , 2007, “ Experiment Study on Initial Stages of Frost Growth on Different Character Surface,” International Congress Refrigeration, Beijing, Paper No. ICR07-B1-317.
Hao, Y. L. , Tao, Y. X. , Iragorry, J. , and Castro, D. , 2003, “ Experimental Study of Frost Formation on a Flat Surface Under Natural Convection,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2003-42066.
Fossa, M. , and Tanda, G. , 2002, “ Study of Free Convection Frost Formation on a Vertical Plate,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 26(6–7), pp. 661–668. [CrossRef]
Janssen, D. D. , 2011, “ Experimental Strategies for Frost Analysis,” M.S. thesis, Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
Janssen, D. D. , Mohs, W. F. , and Kulacki, F. A. , 2012, “ High Resolution Imaging of Frost Melting,” ASME Paper No. HT2012-58061.
Mohs, W. F. , 2013, “ Heat and Mass Transfer During the Melting Process of a Porous Frost Layer on a Vertical Surface,” Ph.D. thesis, Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
Wolff, E. G. , and Schneider, D. A. , 1998, “ Prediction of Thermal Contact Resistance Between Polished Surfaces,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 41(22), pp. 3469–3482. [CrossRef]
Shin, J. , Tikhonov, A. V. , and Kim, C. , 2003, “ Experimental Study on Frost Structure on Surfaces With Different Hydrophilicity, Density and Thermal Conductivity,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 125(1), pp. 84–94. [CrossRef]
Lee, Y. B. , and Ro, S. T. , 2002, “ Frost Formation on a Vertical Plate in Simultaneously Developing Flow,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 26(8), pp. 939–945. [CrossRef]
Fossa, M. , and Tanda, G. , 2010, “ Frost Formation in Vertical Channels Under Natural Convection,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 36(3), pp. 210–220. [CrossRef]
Cheng, C.-H. , and Shiu, C.-C. , 2002, “ Frost Formation and Frost Crystal Growth on a Cold Plate in Atmospheric Air Flow,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 45(21), pp. 4289–4303. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Apparatus and instrumentation. The in-plane camera is not shown.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Test surface assembly

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

In-plane image of frost growth: (a) t = 0 s, (b) t = 40 min, and (c) t = 240 min. Resolution is 135 px/mm. Baseline is in white, and average frost thickness is dotted.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Variation possible when choosing frost thickness measurement locations. Peaks (gray line) at 1.01 mm, arithmetic average height (dotted line) at 0.62 mm, and valleys (black line) at 0.41 mm. Resolution is 1 mm at 135 px/mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Frost profiles for different test conditions. (a) Ambient air temperature is −0.6 °C, ambient dew point temperature is −7.8 °C, and test surface temperature is −9.6 °C. (b) Ambient air temperature is 0 °C, ambient dew point temperature is −7.7 °C, and test surface temperature is −19.2 °C. Images are sequenced at a 20-min interval.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Typical frost profile (135 px/mm); (b) with digital edge construction; and (c) after conversion to physical units with the average value (0.73 mm)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Typical frost growth versus time and approximate analytical representations. Frost growth curve is a normalized version of the correlation of Cremers and Mehra [6].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Exponential system behavior, Eq. (2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variation of the K(θ) for the trial function δ = K(θ)tθ. When θ ∼ 0.4, the transition to a more stable, lower growth rate is seen.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Polynomials A and B determined by regression for the data runs of Table 1: (a) accelerated growth, θ < 0.4; (b) slow growth, θ > 0.4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Linear regression fits for full dataset. Solid lines are 1:1.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of predicted and measured thickness for the slow growth period, θ < 0.4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison of accuracy between Eq. (3) and other thickness correlations (runs 1–4). Data points are averages over present data runs.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Equation (9) and measurements of Cheng and Shiu [31]. Solid line indicates predicted values (Eq. (3)).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison of predictions to data of Lee and Ro [29]. Solid lines are predicted values.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Equation (3) with data of Fossa and Tanda [30]. Solid line indicates predicted values.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In