Research Papers

Modular Design for a Single-Phase Manifold Mini/Microchannel Cold Plate

[+] Author and Article Information
Feng Zhou, Shailesh N. Joshi, Ercan M. Dede

Toyota Research Institute North of America,
1555 Woodridge Avenue,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105

Yan Liu

Toyota Technical Center,
1555 Woodridge Avenue,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105

Yanghe Liu

Toyota Research Institute North of America,
1555 Woodridge Avenue,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: yanghe.liu@tema.toyota.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received June 8, 2015; final manuscript received October 20, 2015; published online December 8, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Gamal Refaie-Ahmed.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 8(2), 021010 (Dec 08, 2015) (13 pages) Paper No: TSEA-15-1162; doi: 10.1115/1.4031932 History: Received June 08, 2015; Revised October 20, 2015

The present work is related to the design of a manifold mini/microchannel heat sink with high modularity and performance for electronics cooling, utilizing two well established (i.e., jet impingement and channel flow) cooling technologies. A manifold system with cylindrical connection tubes and tapered inserts is designed for uniform coolant distribution among different channels and easy manufacturing of the whole cooling device. The design of the insert provides freedom to manipulate the flow structure within each manifold section and balance the cooling performance and required pumping power for the cold plate. Due to the optimized tapered shape of the insert inlet branches, fluid flows more uniformly through the entire heat sink fin region leading to uniform heat sink base temperatures. Extending the design of the heat sink fin structure from the mini to microscale, and doubling of the number of insert inlet/outlet branches, results in an 80% increase in the cooling performance, from 30 kW/(m2 · K) to 54 kW/(m2 · K), with only a 0.94 kPa added pressure drop penalty. The present cold plate design also provides flexibility to assemble manifold sections in different configurations to reach different flow structures, and thus different cooling performance, without redesign. The details of the modular manifold and possible configurations of a cold plate comprising three manifold sections are shown herein. A conjugate flow and heat transfer three-dimensional (3D) numerical model is developed for each configuration of the cold plate to demonstrate the merits of each modular design. Parallel flow configurations are used to satisfy a uniform cooling requirement from each module, and it is shown that “U-shape” parallel flow “base” configuration cools the modules more uniformly than a “Z-shape” flow pattern due to intrinsic pressure distribution characteristics. A serial fluid flow configuration requires the minimum coolant flow rate with a gradually increasing device temperature along the flow direction. Two mixed (i.e., parallel + serial flow) configurations achieve either cooling performance similar to the U-shape configuration with slightly more than half of the coolant flow rate, or cooling of a specific module to a much lower temperature level. Generally speaking, the current cold plate design significantly extends its application to different situations with distinct cooling requirements.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Sathe, S. , and Sammakia, B. , 1998, “ A Review of Recent Developments in Some Practical Aspects of Air-Cooled Electronic Packages,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 120(4), pp. 830–839. [CrossRef]
Zhou, F. , and Catton, I. , 2011, “ Numerical Evaluation of Flow and Heat Transfer in Plate-Pin Fin Heat Sinks With Various Pin Cross-Sections,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 60(2), pp. 107–128. [CrossRef]
Zhou, F. , DeMoulin, G. , Geb, D. , and Catton, I. , 2012, “ Closure for a Plane Fin Heat Sink With Scale-Roughened Surfaces for Volume Averaging Theory (VAT) Based Modeling,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55(25–26), pp. 7677–7685. [CrossRef]
Zhou, F. , and Catton, I. , 2013, “ A Numerical Investigation of Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer in Rectangular Channels With Elliptic Scale-Roughened Walls,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 135(8), p. 081901. [CrossRef]
Dede, E. M. , Joshi, S. N. , and Zhou, F. , 2015, “ Topology Optimization, Additive Layer Manufacturing, and Experimental Testing of an Air-Cooled Heat Sink,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 137, p. 111702. [CrossRef]
Copeland, D. W. , 2003, “ Fundamental Performance Limits of Heatsinks,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 125(2), pp. 221–225. [CrossRef]
Saini, M. , and Webb, R. L. , 2003, “ Heat Rejection Limits of Air Cooled Plane Fin Heat Sinks for Computer Cooling,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol., 26(1), pp. 71–79. [CrossRef]
Garimella, S. V. , and Sobhan, C. B. , 2003, “ Transport in Microchannels—A Critical Review,” Annu. Rev. Heat Transfer, 13(13), pp. 1–50. [CrossRef]
Dede, E. M. , 2012, “ Optimization and Design of a Multipass Branching Microchannel Heat Sink for Electronics Cooling,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 134(4), p. 041001. [CrossRef]
Dede, E. M. , and Liu, Y. , 2013, “ Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a Multi-Pass Branching Microchannel Heat Sink,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 55(1–2), pp. 51–60. [CrossRef]
Joshi, S. N. , and Dede, E. M. , 2015, “ Effect of Sub-Cooling on Performance of a Multi-Jet Two Phase Cooler With Multi-Scale Porous Surfaces,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 87, pp. 110–120. [CrossRef]
Rau, M. J. , Garimella, S. V. , Dede, E. M. , and Joshi, S. N. , 2015, “ Boiling Heat Transfer From an Array of Round Jets With Hybrid Surface Enhancements,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 137(7), p. 071501. [CrossRef]
Hassan, I. , Phutthavong, P. , and Abdelgawad, M. , 2004, “ Microchannel Heat Sinks: An Overview of the State-of-the-Art,” Microscale Thermophys. Eng., 8(3), pp. 183–205. [CrossRef]
Kandlikar, S. G. , 2005, “ High Flux Heat Removal With Microchannels—A Roadmap of Challenges and Opportunities,” Heat Transfer Eng., 26(8), pp. 5–14. [CrossRef]
Ohadi, M. M. , Choo, K. , Dessiatoun, S. , and Cetegen, E. , 2013, Next Generation Microchannel Heat Exchangers, Springer, New York.
Morini, G. L. , 2004, “ Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer in Microchannels: A Review of Experimental Results,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 43(7), pp. 631–651. [CrossRef]
Agostini, B. , Fabbri, M. , Park, J. E. , Wojtan, L. , Thome, J. R. , and Michel, B. , 2007, “ State of the Art of High Heat Flux Cooling Technologies,” Heat Transfer Eng., 28(4), pp. 258–281. [CrossRef]
Bhunia, A. , Chandrasekaran, S. , and Chung-Lung, C. , 2007, “ Performance Improvement of a Power Conversion Module by Liquid Micro-Jet Impingement Cooling,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol., 30(2), pp. 309–316. [CrossRef]
Harpole, G. M. , and Eninger, J. E. , 1991, “ Micro-Channel Heat Exchanger Optimization,” Seventh Annual IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM), Phoenix, AZ, Feb. 12–14, pp. 59–63.
Tuckerman, D. B. , and Pease, R. F. W. , 1981, “ High-Performance Heat Sinking for VLSI,” IEEE Electron Device Lett., 2(5), pp. 126–129. [CrossRef]
Copeland, D. , 1995, “ Manifold Microchannel Heat Sinks: Numerical Analysis,” ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Nov. 12–17, ASME, San Francisco, CA, pp. 111–116.
Copeland, D. , Behnia, M. , and Nakayama, W. , 1997, “ Manifold Microchannel Heat Sinks: Isothermal Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., Part A, 20(2), pp. 96–102. [CrossRef]
Copeland, D. , Takahira, H. , Nakayama, W. , and Pak, B. C. , 1995, “ Manifold Microchannel Heat Sinks: Theory and Experiment,” International Electronic Packaging Conference (INTERPACK '95), Lahaina, HI, T. R. Hsu, A. Bar-Cohen, and W. Nakayama, eds., Vol. 2, pp. 829–835.
Kim, Y. , Chun, W. , Kim, J. , Pak, B. , and Baek, B. , 1998, “ Forced Air Cooling by Using Manifold Microchannel Heat Sinks,” KSME Int. J., 12, pp. 709–718.
Ryu, J. H. , Choi, D. H. , and Kim, S. J. , 2002, “ Numerical Optimization of the Thermal Performance of a Microchannel Heat Sink,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 45(13), pp. 2823–2827. [CrossRef]
Ryu, J. H. , Choi, D. H. , and Kim, S. J. , 2003, “ Three-Dimensional Numerical Optimization of a Manifold Microchannel Heat Sink,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46(9), pp. 1553–1562. [CrossRef]
Husain, A. , and Kim, K.-Y. , 2013, “ Design Optimization of Manifold Microchannel Heat Sink Through Evolutionary Algorithm Coupled With Surrogate Model, Components,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Packag., Manuf. Technol., 3(4), pp. 617–624. [CrossRef]
Escher, W. , Michel, B. , and Poulikakos, D. , 2010, “ A Novel High Performance, Ultra Thin Heat Sink for Electronics,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 31(4), pp. 586–598. [CrossRef]
Sarangi, S. , Bodla, K. K. , Garimella, S. V. , and Murthy, J. Y. , 2014, “ Manifold Microchannel Heat Sink Design Using Optimization Under Uncertainty,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 69, pp. 92–105. [CrossRef]
Pan, M. , Tang, Y. , Pan, L. , and Lu, L. , 2008, “ Optimal Design of Complex Manifold Geometries for Uniform Flow Distribution Between Microchannels,” Chem. Eng. J., 137(2), pp. 339–346. [CrossRef]
Pan, M. , Tang, Y. , Yu, H. , and Chen, H. , 2009, “ Modeling of Velocity Distribution Among Microchannels With Triangle Manifolds,” AIChE J., 55(8), pp. 1969–1982. [CrossRef]
Solovitz, S. A. , and Mainka, J. , 2011, “ Manifold Design for Micro-Channel Cooling With Uniform Flow Distribution,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 133(5), p. 051103. [CrossRef]
Mohammadi, M. , Jovanovic, G. N. , and Sharp, K. V. , 2013, “ Numerical Study of Flow Uniformity and Pressure Characteristics Within a Microchannel Array With Triangular Manifolds,” Comput. Chem. Eng., 52, pp. 134–144. [CrossRef]
Stevanovic, L. D. , Beaupre, R. A. , Gowda, A. V. , Pautsch, A. G. , and Solovitz, S. A. , 2010, “ Integral Micro-Channel Liquid Cooling for Power Electronics,” Twenty-Fifth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), Palm Springs, CA, Feb. 21–25, pp. 1591–1597.
Olejniczak, K. J. , Flint, T. , Simco, D. , Storkov, S. , McGee, B. , George, K. , Killeen, P. , Curbow, A. , Shaw, R. S. , Passmore, B. , and McNutt, T. R. , 2015, “ System-Level Packaging of Wide Bandgap Inverters for Electric Traction Drive Vehicles,” ASME Paper No. InterPACKICNMM2015-48602.
Zhou, F. , Liu, Y. , Joshi, S. N. , Liu, Y. , and Dede, E. M. , 2015, “ Modular Flow Structure Design for a Single-Phase Manifold Microchannel Cold Plate,” ASME Paper No. InterPACKICNMM2015-48029.
CD-adapco, 2014, User's Guide for Star CCM+ V9.04.
Ansys, 2014, Use's Guide for Ansys CFX V15.0.
Ferrero, M. , Scattina, A. , Chiavazzo, E. , Carena, F. , Perocchio, D. , Roberti, M. , Toscano Rivalta, G. , and Asinari, P. , 2013, “ Louver Finned Heat Exchangers for Automotive Sector: Numerical Simulations of Heat Transfer and Flow Resistance Coping With Industrial Constraints,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 135(12), p. 121801. [CrossRef]
Zhou, F. , Dede, E. M. , and Joshi, S. N. , 2015, “ A Novel Design of Hybrid Slot Jet and Mini-Channel Cold Plate for Electronics Cooling,” SEMI-THERM 2015, San Jose, CA, Mar. 15–19.
Shah, R. K. , and Sekulic, D. P. , 2003, Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger Design, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) TMC cold plate and (b) MMC cold plate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Exploded view of a SiC/GaN wide bandgap inverter for under-the-hood electric vehicle traction drive

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) A reconfigurable, single module manifold section with microchannel heat sink. (b) Manifold section for single module showing internal insert, O-ring, and plug.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Flow path through the manifold. (a) Top view of the flow path through the manifold system. (b) Side view of the flow path through the connection tubes and inlet/outlet branches. (c) Schematic of the insert which functions as the manifold divider and sits on top of the fin tips of the heat sink.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

A cold plate comprising three modular manifold sections arranged to cool three electronic power modules

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Streamlines for cold plate with straight inserts and minifin heat sink geometry; (b) streamlines for cold plate with tapered inserts and minifin heat sink geometry

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Isoview of the insert sitting on the heat sink fin tips with arrows showing the flow path. (b) Side-view of the insert showing the angles of the tapered branch channels.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Inserts with two pairs of inlet/outlet branches (insert 1) and four pairs of inlet/outlet branches (insert 2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Cold plate configurations with three modular manifolds. The arrows indicate the overall fluid flow path.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Temperature distribution on the backside of the heat sinks for the base configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Temperature distribution on the backside of the heat sinks for configuration 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Pressure distribution through the cold plate. (a) Base configuration—U shape and (b) configuration 1—Z shape.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Schematics of pressure distribution. (a) Base configuration and (b) configuration 1.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Temperature distribution on the backside of the heat sinks for configuration 2 with a fixed pressure inlet boundary condition, pin = Δpmax

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Temperature distribution on the backside of the heat sinks for configuration 3 with a fixed pressure inlet boundary condition, pin = Δpmax

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Temperature distribution on the backside of the heat sinks for configuration 4 with a fixed pressure inlet boundary condition, pin = Δpmax

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Representative polymer rapid prototype manifold sections with snap-fit connections




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In