0
Research Papers

Review and Analysis of Cross Flow Heat Exchanger Transient Modeling for Flow Rate and Temperature Variations

[+] Author and Article Information
Tianyi Gao

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
SUNY-Binghamton University,
Suite 1211,
Center of Excellence Building,
85 Murray Hill Road,
Binghamton, NY 13902
e-mail: Tgao1@binghamton.edu

James Geer, Bahgat Sammakia

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
SUNY-Binghamton University,
Center of Excellence Building,
85 Murray Hill Road,
Binghamton, NY 13902

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received February 27, 2015; final manuscript received July 9, 2015; published online September 10, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Pedro Mago.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 7(4), 041017 (Sep 10, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: TSEA-15-1057; doi: 10.1115/1.4031222 History: Received February 27, 2015; Revised July 09, 2015

Heat exchangers are important facilities that are widely used in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. For example, heat exchangers are the primary units used in the design of the heat transfer loops of cooling systems for data centers. The performance of a heat exchanger strongly influences the thermal performance of the entire cooling system. The prediction of transient phenomenon of heat exchangers is of increasing interest in many application areas. In this work, a dynamic thermal model for a cross flow heat exchanger is solved numerically in order to predict the transient response under step changes in the fluid mass flow rate and the fluid inlet temperature. Transient responses of both the primary and secondary fluid outlet temperatures are characterized under different scenarios, including fluid mass flow rate change and a combination of changes in the fluid inlet temperature and the mass flow rate. In the ε-NTU (number of transfer units) method, the minimum capacity, denoted by Cmin, is the smaller of Ch and Cc. Due to a mass flow rate change, Cmin may vary from one fluid to another fluid. The numerical procedure and transient response regarding the case of varying Cmin are investigated in detail in this study. A review and comparison of several journal articles related to the similar topic are performed. Several sets of data available in the literatures which are in error are studied and analyzed in detail.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Schmidt, R. , 2005, “ Liquid Cooling Is Back,” Electron. Cooling, 11(3), pp. 34–38.
Dusinberre, G. M. , 1954, “ Calculation of Transient Temperatures in Pipes and Heat Exchangers,” Trans. ASME, 76, pp. 421–426.
Myers, G. E. , Mitchell, J. W. , and Norman, R. F. , 1967, “ The Transient Response of Crossflow Heat Exchangers, Evaporators and Condensers,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 89(1), pp. 75–80. [CrossRef]
Romie, F. E. , 1983, “ Transient Response of Gas-to-Gas Crossflow Heat Exchangers With Neither Gas Mixed,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 105(3), pp. 563–570. [CrossRef]
Gvozdenac, D. D. , 1986, “ Analytical Solution of the Transient Response of Gas-to-Gas Crossflow Heat Exchanger With Both Fluids Unmixed,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 108(4), pp. 722–727. [CrossRef]
Spiga, G. , and Spiga, M. , 1987, “ Two-Dimensional Transient Solutions for Crossflow Wheat Exchangers With Neither Gas Mixed,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 109(2), pp. 281–286. [CrossRef]
Spiga, G. , and Spiga, M. , 1992, “ Step Response of the Crossflow Heat Exchanger With Finite Wall Capacitance,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 35(2), pp. 559–565. [CrossRef]
Gao, T. , Geer, J. , and Sammakia, B. , 2014, “ Nonuniform Temperature Boundary Condition Effect on Data Center Cross Flow Heat Exchanger Dynamic Performance,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 79, pp. 1048–1058. [CrossRef]
Gao, T. , Sammakia, B. , Murray, B. , Ortega, A. , and Schmidt, R. , 2014, “ Cross Flow Heat Exchanger Modeling of Transient Temperature Input Conditions,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol., 4(11), pp. 1796–1807. [CrossRef]
Pearson, J. T. , Leonard, R. G. , and McCutchan, R. D. , 1974, “ Gain and Time Constant for Finned Serpentine Crossflow Heat Exchangers,” ASHRAE Trans., 80(2), pp. 255–267.
Xuan, Y. , and Roetzel, W. , 1993, “ Dynamics of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers to Arbitrary Temperature and Step Flow Variations,” AIChE J., 39(3), pp. 413–421. [CrossRef]
Roetzel, W. , and Xuan, Y. , 1999, Dynamic Behaviour of Heat Exchangers, Computational Mechanics Publications, WIT Press, Southampton, UK.
Mishra, M. , Das, P. K. , and Sarangi, S. , 2006, “ Transient Behaviour of Crossflow Heat Exchangers Due to Perturbations in Temperature and Flow,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49(5–6), pp. 1083–1089. [CrossRef]
Silaipillayarputhur, K. , and Idem, S. , 2012, “ Step Response of a Single-Pass Crossflow Heat Exchanger With Variable Inlet Temperatures and Mass Flow Rates,” ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 4(4), p. 044501. [CrossRef]
Gao, T. , Sammakia, B. , Geer, J. , Ortega, A. , and Schmidt, R. , 2014, “ Dynamic Analysis of Cross Flow Heat Exchangers in Data Centers Using Transient Effectiveness Method,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol., 4(12), pp. 1925–1935. [CrossRef]
Gao, T. , Sammakia, B. , and Geer, J. , “ Dynamic Response and Control Analysis of Cross Flow Heat Exchangers Under Variable Temperature and Flow Rate Conditions,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 81, pp. 542–553. [CrossRef]
Kays, W. M. , and London, A. L. , 1964, Compact Heat Exchangers, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
Gao, T. , David, M. , Geer, J. , Schmidt, R. , and Sammakia, B. , 2015, “ A Dynamic Model of Failure Scenarios of the Dry Cooler in a Liquid Cooled Chiller-Less Data Center,” 31st Annual Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium (SEMI-THERM), San Jose, CA, Mar. 15–19, pp. 113–119.
Cima, R. M. , and London, A. L. , 1958, “ Transient Response of a Two-Fluid Counter-Flow Heat Exchanger—The Gas-Turbine Regenerator,” Trans. ASME, 80, pp. 1169–1179.
Gao, T. , David, M. , Geer, J. , Schmidt, R. , and Sammakia, B. , 2015, “ Experimental and Numerical Dynamic Investigation of an Energy Efficient Liquid Cooled Chiller-Less Data Center Test Facility,” Energy Build., 91C, pp. 83–96. [CrossRef]
Gao, T. , Delvalle, M. , Ortega, A. , and Sammakia, B. , 2015 “ Numerical and Experimental Characterization of Transient Effectiveness of a Water to Air Heat Exchanger in Data Center Cooling Systems,” ASME Paper No. InterPACK2015-48371.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Data center thermal management. Several viable options for liquid cooling and hybrid cooling design using cross flow heat exchangers: (a) rear-mounted heat exchanger, (b) top-mounted heat exchanger, (c) bottom-mounted heat exchanger, and (d) side-mounted heat exchanger (top view) [1].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Effectiveness curves of the dry cooler, simulation results and experimental data, with the Cmin variation effect included [18] (8 GPM = 0.000504 m3/s)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) A schematic representation of cross flow heat exchanger and (b) symmetric 2D model geometry

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Model validation with the analytical solution in Ref. [6] for step input inlet temperature with E = R = 1 and V = 0 and fluid mass flow rate: rc = rh = 1 [9]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Model validation with the analog solution in Ref. [15] for both NTU 1–1.5 and NTU 1.5–1 cases [19]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Experimental validation [16]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Numerical solution verification with two published numerical studies. Two single mass flow rate variation cases (with E = R = V = NTU = 1): case 1: rh = 0.8 and rc = 1 and case 2: rh = 0.5 and rc = 1 [14].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Outlet temperature transient response under different hot fluid mass flow rate step changes using the present procedure: (a) cold fluid and (b) hot fluid (NTU = 1, E = 1, R = 1, and V = 1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Repetition of the results in Ref. [14] for rh = 3, rh = 2, rh = 0.8, and rh = 0.5 cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Outlet temperature transient response under different hot fluid mass flow rate step changes using the numerical procedure presented in Ref. [14]: (a) cold fluid and (b) hot fluid

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Steady-state temperature results comparison for different hot fluid mass flow rate variations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Outlet temperature transient response under combination of hot fluid inlet temperature step change and different hot fluid mass flow rate step changes: (a) hot fluid and (b) cold fluid (NTU = 1, E = 1, R = 1, and V = 1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Outlet temperature transient response under combination of hot fluid inlet temperature step change and hot fluid mass flow rate step change (rh = 2), effect of NTU

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Outlet temperature transient response under combination of hot fluid inlet temperature step change and different cold fluid mass flow rate step changes: (a) hot fluid and (b) cold fluid (NTU = 1, E = 1, R = 1, and V = 1)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Outlet temperature transient response under combination of hot fluid inlet temperature step change and hot fluid mass flow rate step change (rh = 2), effect of E

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In