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Research Papers

Two-Dimensional Unsteady Simulation of All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

[+] Author and Article Information
H. M. Sathisha

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Guwahati 781039, India
e-mail: m.sathisha@iitg.ernet.in

Amaresh Dalal

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Guwahati 781039, India
e-mail: amaresh@iitg.ernet.in

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received May 31, 2014; final manuscript received April 24, 2015; published online November 11, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Chakravarthy Balaji.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 8(1), 011019 (Nov 11, 2015) (14 pages) Paper No: TSEA-14-1137; doi: 10.1115/1.4030737 History: Received May 31, 2014

The all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) has been considered as one of the most promising rechargeable battery for large-scale energy storage system that can be used with renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, for electrical energy storage and distribution. Since it is able to withstand average loads, high energy efficiency (EE), and high power output, the battery exhibits good transient behavior and sustains sudden voltage drop. The dynamics of the battery is governed by the equations of fluid mechanics, electrodynamics, and electrochemistry. In this context, earlier efforts reported in the literature were mainly focused on simulation of the variation of the charge/discharge characteristics of the cell. There is a need to optimize the cell parameters so as to improve the cell performance. The performance of the battery is also studied numerically with the two-dimensional (2D) isothermal transient model. This model is used to predict the effects of change in electrolyte flow rate, concentration, electrode porosity, and applied current. The efficiency analysis for the effects of concentration shows that maximum coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiencies have been achieved in case of higher concentration. Numerical model results are validated with the available experimental result, which shows good agreement.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the all-VRFB showing the components, current collectors, porous electrodes, membrane, and reservoirs

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Fig. 2

A comparison of the simulated and experimental charge–discharge curves for C30=1440 mol/m3. The other parameter values are given in Tables 13.

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Fig. 3

A comparison of the simulated charge–discharge curves for C30=1080 mol/m3, C30=1260 mol/m3, and C30=1440 mol/m3. The other parameter values are given in Tables 13.

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Fig. 6

A comparison of simulated charge–discharge curves for three volumetric flow rates with initial concentration of C30=1080 mol/m3. The charge times are 2010 s for ω=1 ml/s, 2034 s for ω=2 ml/s and 2058 s for ω=3 ml/s. The other parameter values are given in Tables 13.

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Fig. 7

Contours of V(III) and V(IV) concentration while charge (a) and during discharge (b), in the negative and positive electrode at t = 2034 s (end of charge) for ω=2 ml/s. Referring to Fig. 1, the line x1 represents the electrode/current–collector interface and x2 = 0.004 m represents the electrode/membrane interface. The dimensions in x and y directions are represented in meters.

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Fig. 4

Contours of the V(III) and V(IV) concentrations while charge (a) and during discharge (b) corresponding to the cycle C30=1440 mol/m3 shown in Fig. 3. Referring to Fig. 1, the line x1 represents the electrode/current–collector interface and x2 = 0.004 m represents the electrode/membrane interface. The dimensions in x and y directions are represented in meters.

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Fig. 5

Coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiencies for electrolyte concentrations: C30=1080 mol/m3, C30=1260 mol/m3, and C30=1440 mol/m3. The current was I = 10 A, and the flow rate was ω=1 ml/s. The other parameter values are given in Tables 13.

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Fig. 8

Simulated charge–discharge curves for three electrode porosity values, with initial concentration of C30=1080 mol/m3. These charge times are 2298 s for ε=0.6, 2010 s for ε=0.68, and 1788 s for ε=0.8. The other parameter values are given in Tables 13.

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Fig. 9

Contours of the V(III) and V(IV) concentration while charge (a) and during discharge (b) corresponding to the cycle, porosity ɛ=0.6 at t = 2298 s (end of charge). Referring to Fig. 1, the line x1 represents the electrode/current–collector interface and x2 = 0.004 m represents the electrode/membrane interface. The dimensions in x and y directions are represented in meters.

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Fig. 10

Contours of the V(III) and V(IV) concentration while charge (a) and during discharge (b) corresponding to the cycle, porosity ɛ=0.8 at t = 1788 s (end of charge). Referring to Fig. 1, the line x1 represents the current collector/electrode interface and x2 = 0.004 m represents the electrode/membrane interface. The dimensions in x and y directions are represented in meters.

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Fig. 11

Simulated charge–discharge curves for three electrode porosity values, with initial concentration of C30=1080 mol/m3. These charge times are 4137 s for I = 5 A, 2010 s for I = 10 A and 1379 s for I = 15 A. The other parameter values are given in Tables 13.

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Fig. 12

Contours of the V(III) and V(IV) concentration while charge (a) and during discharge (b) in the positive and negative electrode at t = 4137 s (end of charge) for current I = 5 A, the line x1 denotes the current collector/electrode interface and x2 = 0.004 m represents the membrane/electrode interface. The dimensions in x and y directions are represented in meters.

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Fig. 13

Contours of the V(III) and V(IV) concentration while charge (a) and while discharge (b) in the positive and negative electrode at t = 2010 s (end of charge) for current I = 10 A. The line x1 denotes the current collector/electrode interface and x2 = 0.004 m denotes the membrane/electrode interface. The dimensions in x and y directions are represented in meters.

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