0
Research Papers

Modeling Nonequilibrium Combustion Chemistry Using Constrained Equilibrium Flamelet Model for Kerosene Spray Flame

[+] Author and Article Information
Prakash Ghose

School of Mechanical Engineering,
KIIT University,
Bhubaneswar 751024, India
e-mail: prakashgbanu@yahoo.co.in

Amitava Datta

Department of Power Engineering,
Jadavpur University,
Salt Lake Campus,
Kolkata 700098, India
e-mail: amdatta_ju@yahoo.com

Achintya Mukhopadhyay

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Jadavpur University,
Kolkata 700032, India
e-mail: achintya.mukho@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received April 23, 2014; final manuscript received January 28, 2015; published online November 11, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Suman Chakraborty.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 8(1), 011004 (Nov 11, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: TSEA-14-1080; doi: 10.1115/1.4030700 History: Received April 23, 2014

Numerical simulation employing different models is popularly used to predict spray combustion of liquid fuels. In the present work, we have compared the effects of three different combustion models, viz., eddy dissipation model, laminar flamelet model with detailed chemical reaction mechanism, and constrained equilibrium flamelet model, on the temperature, soot, and NOx distributions in an axisymmetric combustor burning kerosene spray. Experiments have also been performed in a combustor of the same geometry to validate some predictions from the models. The constraint condition for the equilibrium flamelet model has been adopted by suitably accounting the effects of scalar dissipation rate on the prediction of scalar variables in a laminar flamelet and by considering the mixture fraction and scalar dissipation rate distributions in the combustor under test. It is found that the results predicted by the two flamelet models agree closely between them and also with the experiments. On the other hand, the eddy dissipation model predicts a much higher flame temperature, soot, and NOx concentrations in the combustor. The results suggest the importance of chemistry in the prediction of the turbulent spray flame. It also suggests that with a proper choice of the constraint condition, the equilibrium flamelet model can address the nonequilibrium chemistry in the flame due to the high value of scalar dissipation rate.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Versteeg, H. K. , and Malalasekera, W. , 2007, An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics the Finite Volume Method, 2nd ed., Pearson Education, Harlow, UK.
Faeth, G. M. , 1987, “Mixing Transport and Combustion in Sprays,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 13(4), pp. 293–345. [CrossRef]
Kuo, K. K. , and Acharya, R. , 2012, Fundamentals of Turbulent and Multiphase Combustion, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Jenny, P. , Roekaerts, D. , and Beishuizen, N. , 2012, “Modeling of Turbulent Dilute Spray Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 38(6), pp. 846–887. [CrossRef]
De, S. , Lakshmisha, K. N. , and Bilger, R. W. , 2011, “Modeling of Non-Reacting and Reacting Turbulent Spray Jets Using a Fully Stochastic Separated Flow Approach,” Combust. Flame, 158(10), pp. 1992–2008. [CrossRef]
Rotondi, R. , and Bella, G. , 2006, “Gasoline Direct Injection Spray Simulation,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 45(2), pp. 168–179. [CrossRef]
Park, S. W. , and Reitz, R. D. , 2008, “Modeling the Effect of Injector Nozzle-Holelayout on Diesel Engine Fuel Consumption and Emissions,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 130(3), p. 032805. [CrossRef]
Tolpadi, A. K. , 1995, “Calculation of Two Phase Flow in Gas Turbine Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 117(4), pp. 695–703. [CrossRef]
Datta, A. , and Som, S. K. , 1999, “Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Gas Turbine Combustor at Different Pressure and Swirl Conditions,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 19(9), pp. 949–967. [CrossRef]
Jo, S. , Kim, H. Y. , and Yoon, S. S. , 2008, “Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Inlet Air Temperature on Spray Combustion in a Wall Jet Can Combustor Using k-ε Turbulence Model,” Numer. Heat Transfer, Part A, 54(12), pp. 1101–1120. [CrossRef]
Byun, D. , and Baek, S. W. , 2007, “Numerical Investigation of Combustion With Non-Gray Thermal Radiation and Soot Formation Effect in a Liquid Rocket Engine,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 50(3), pp. 412–422. [CrossRef]
Kumaran, K. , and Babu, V. , 2009, “Mixing and Combustion Characteristics of Kerosene in a Model Supersonic Combustor,” J. Propul. Power, 25(3), pp. 583–592. [CrossRef]
Moin, P. , and Apte, S. V. , 2006, “Large-Eddy Simulation for Realistic Gas Turbine Combustors,” AIAA J., 44(4), pp. 698–708. [CrossRef]
Luo, K. , Pitsch, H. , Pai, M. G. , and Desjardins, O. , 2011, “Direct Numerical Simulations and Analysis of Three-Dimensional n-Heptane Spray Flames in a Model Swirl Combustor,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 33(2), pp. 2143–2152. [CrossRef]
Karim, V. M. , Bart, M. , and Erik, D. , 2003, “Comparative Study of k-ε Turbulence Models in Inert and Reacting Swirling Flows,” AIAA Paper No. 2003-3744. [CrossRef]
Joung, D. , and Huh, K. Y. , 2010, “3D RANS Simulation of Turbulent Flow and Combustion in a 5 MW Reverse-Flow Type Gas Turbine Combustor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(11), p. 111504. [CrossRef]
Zeinivand, H. , and Bazdidi-Tehrani, F. , 2012, “Influence of Stabilizer Jets on Combustion Characteristics and NOx Emission in a Jet-Stabilized Combustor,” Appl. Energy, 92, pp. 348–360. [CrossRef]
Magnussen, B. F. , and Hjertager, B. H. , 1976, “On Mathematical Models of Turbulent Combustion With Special Emphasis on Soot Formation and Combustion,” 16th International Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 719–729.
Peters, N. , 2000, Turbulent Combustion (Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Li, G. , Naud, B. , and Roekaerts, D. , 2003, “Numerical Investigation of a Bluff-Body Stabilised Nonpremixed Flame With Differential Reynolds-Stress Models,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 70(1–4), pp. 211–240. [CrossRef]
Hollmann, C. , and Gutheil, E. , 1996, “Modeling of Turbulent Spray Diffusion Flames Including Detailed Chemistry,” 26th International Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 1731–1738.
Merci, B. , Dick, E. , Vierendeels, J. , Roekaerts, D. , and Peeters, T. W. J. , 2001, “Application of a New Cubic Turbulence Model to Piloted and Bluff-Body Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame, 126(1), pp. 1533–1556. [CrossRef]
Hossain, M. , and Malalasekera, W. , 2007, “A Combustion Model Sensitivity Study for CH4/H2 Bluff-Body Stabilized Flame,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part C, 221(11), pp. 1377–1390. [CrossRef]
Shih, T. H. , Liou, W. W. , Shabbir, A. , Yang, Z. , and Zhu, J. , 1995, “A New k-ε Eddy Viscosity Model for High Reynolds Number Turbulent Flows,” Comput. Fluids, 24(3), pp. 227–238. [CrossRef]
Schmidt, D. P. , Nouar, I. P. , Senecal, K. , Rutland, C. J. , Martin, J. K. , and Reitz, R. D. , 1999, “Pressure-Swirl Atomization in the Near Field,” SAE Paper No. 01-0496.
Paul, S. C. , and Paul, M. C. , 2010, “Radiative Heat Transfer During Turbulent Combustion Process,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 37(1), pp. 1–6. [CrossRef]
Brookes, S. J. , and Moss, J. B. , 1999, “Predictions of Soot and Thermal Radiation Properties in Confined Turbulent Jet Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame, 116(4), pp. 486–503. [CrossRef]
Ghose, P. , Patra, J. , Datta, A. , and Mukhopadhyay, A. , 2014, “Effect of Air Flow Distribution on Soot Formation and Radiative Heat Transfer in a Model Liquid Fuel Spray Combustor Firing Kerosene,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 74, pp. 143–155. [CrossRef]
Senecal, P. K. , Schmidt, D. P. , Nouar, I. , Rutland, C. J. , Reitz, R. D. , and Corradini, M. L. , 1999, “Modeling High-Speed Viscous Liquid Sheet Atomization,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 25(6), pp. 1073–1097. [CrossRef]
Morsi, S. A. , and Alexander, A. J. , 1972, “An Investigation of Particle Trajectories in Two Phase Flow System,” J. Fluid Mech., 55(2), pp. 193–208. [CrossRef]
Ranz, W. E. , and Marshall, W. R., Jr. , 1952, “Evaporation From Drops, Part II,” Chem. Eng. Prog., 48(4), pp. 173–180.
Ansys Fluent 13.0 Theory Guide.
Bray, K. N. C. , and Peters, N. , 1994, “Laminar Flamelets in Turbulent Flames,” Turbulent Reacting Flows, P. A. Libby , and F. A. Williams , eds., Academic Press, London, pp. 63–94.
Marracino, B. , and Lentini, D. , 1997, “Radiation Modelling in Non-Luminous Non-Premixed Turbulent Flames,” Combust. Sci. Technol., 128(1–6), pp. 23–48. [CrossRef]
Ravikanti, M. , Malalasekera, W. , Hossain, M. , and Mahmud, T. , 2008, “Flamelet Based NOx Radiation Integrated Modelling of Turbulent Non-Premixed Flame Using Reynolds-Stress Model,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., 81(1–2), pp. 301–319. [CrossRef]
Kundu, K. P. , Penko, P. F. , and Yang, S. L. , 1998, “Simplified Jet-A/Air Combustion Mechanisms for Calculation of NOx Emissions,” AIAA Paper No. 98-3986. [CrossRef]
Moss, J. B. , and Aksit, I. M. , 2007, “Modeling Soot Formation in a Laminar Diffusion Flame Burning a Surrogate Kerosene Fuel,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 31(2), pp. 3139–3146. [CrossRef]
Young, K. J. , Stewart, C. D. , and Moss, J. B. , 1994, “Soot Formation in Turbulent Nonpremixed Kerosine-Air Flames Burning at Elevated Pressure: Experimental Measurement,” 25th International Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 609–617.
Modest, F. M. , 1993, Radiative Heat Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Watanabe, H. , Kurose, R. , Komori, S. , and Pitsch, H. , 2008, “Effects of Radiation on Spray Flame Characteristics and Soot Formation,” Combust. Flame, 152(1–2), pp. 2–13. [CrossRef]
Smith, T. F. , Shen, Z. F. , and Friedman, J. N. , 1982, “Evaluation of Coefficients for the Weighted Sum of Gray Gases Model,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 104(4), pp. 602–608. [CrossRef]
Basak, A. , Patra, J. , Ganguly, R. , and Datta, A. , 2013, “Effect of Transesterification of Vegetable Oil on Liquid Flow Number and Spray Cone Angle for Pressure and Twin Fluid Atomizers,” Fuel, 112, pp. 347–354. [CrossRef]
Ansys Fluent 13.0 User Guide.
DeSoete, G. G. , 1975, “Overall Reaction Rate of NO and N2 Formation From Fuel Nitrogen,” 15th International Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 1093–1102.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Geometry (physical model) of the combustor in computation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Wall temperature variation in the combustor with different mesh configurations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Variation of ε/k (top half) and reaction rate (bottom half) in the combustor predicted using the eddy dissipation model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Variation of mean mixture fraction (top half) and mean scalar dissipation rate (bottom half) in the combustor predicted using the laminar flamelet model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Variation of mean temperature with mean mixture fraction at different scalar dissipation rates (s−1) from the laminar flamelet model and using the constrained equilibrium model with constraint set at equivalence ratio of 1.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Temperature (K) distributions in the combustor using (a) eddy dissipation model, (b) laminar flamelet model, and (c) constrained equilibrium model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Wall temperature distribution in the combustor using different combustion models and from experiments and (b) exit gas temperature distribution using different combustion models and from experiments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of mean values of (a) temperature, (b) mixture fraction, and (c) soot volume fraction in a kerosene vapor coflow confined turbulent jet diffusion flame between prediction with constrained equilibrium model and experimental results [38]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Soot volume fraction distributions in the combustor using (a) eddy dissipation model, (b) laminar flamelet model, and (c) constrained equilibrium model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

NOx mass fraction distributions in the combustor using (a) eddy dissipation model, (b) laminar flamelet model, and (c) constrained equilibrium model

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In