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Research Papers

Fabrication of Gallium Nitride Films in a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor

[+] Author and Article Information
J. Meng, S. Wong

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Rutgers,
The State University of New Jersey,
Piscataway, NJ 08854

Y. Jaluria

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
Rutgers,
The State University of New Jersey,
Piscataway, NJ 08854
e-mail: jaluria@jove.rutgers.edu

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received July 24, 2014; final manuscript received December 5, 2014; published online January 13, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Samuel Sami.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 7(2), 021003 (Jun 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: TSEA-14-1170; doi: 10.1115/1.4029353 History: Received July 24, 2014; Revised December 05, 2014; Online January 13, 2015

A numerical study has been carried out on the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process for the fabrication of gallium nitride (GaN) thin films, which range from a few nanometers to micrometers in thickness. The numerical study is also coupled with an experimental study on the flow and thermal transport processes in the system. Of particular interest in this study is the dependence of the growth rate of GaN and of the uniformity of the film on the flow, resulting from the choice of various design and operating parameters involved in the MOCVD process. Based on an impingement type rotating-disk reactor, three-dimensional simulations have been preformed to indicate the deposition rate increases with reactor pressure, inlet velocity, and wafer rotating speed, while decreases with the precursor concentration ratio. Additionally, a better film uniformity is caused by reducing the reactor pressure, inlet velocity and wafer rotating speed, and increasing precursor concentration ratio. With the impact of wafer temperature included in this study as well, these results are expected to provide a quantitative basis for the prediction, design, and optimization of the process for the fabrication of GaN devices. The flow and the associated transport processes are discussed in detail on the basis of the results obtained to suggest approaches to improve the uniformity of thin film, minimize fluid loss, and reduce flow recirculation that could affect growth rate and uniformity.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental diagram

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Fig. 2

Design model of platform showing locations of the thermocouples above the wafer

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Fig. 3

Temperature distribution for (a) inlet diameter of 25.4 mm and Tavg of 509 K; (b) inlet diameter of 50.8 mm and Tavg of 496 K, while rotation speed is 60 rpm and inlet velocity is 1 m/s. R = 101.6 mm and H = 50.8 mm.

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Fig. 4

Temperature distribution across the disk under the inlet velocity of 2 m/s, rotation speed of 60 rpm, and inlet diameter of 50.8 mm. Tavg = 454.7 K, R = 101.6 mm, and H = 50.8 mm.

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Fig. 5

Temperature distribution when (a) disk is stationary with Tavg of 507.5 K; (b) it is rotating at 300 rpm with Tavg of 490.0 K, while inlet velocity and inlet diameter are kept as 1 m/s and 25.4 mm, respectively. R = 101.6 mm and H = 50.8 mm.

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Fig. 6

Reactor chamber model used for computation

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Fig. 7

Comparison between simulation results and experimental data. Flow temperature is measured at the height of 0.8 mm above the wafer surface.

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Fig. 8

Temperature contours on one typical cross section under the standard values

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Fig. 9

Effect of reactor pressure P on the deposition rate: (a) normalized average growth rate versus P; (b) deposition rate distribution along the radius for various P, when other parameters are kept at their reference values

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Fig. 10

Typical streamline distribution in the 3D reactor chamber colored by velocity, when pressure equals 760 Torr

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Fig. 11

Dependence of the deposition rate on the wafer temperature Tsus: (a) normalized average growth rate versus Tsus; (b) deposition rate distribution along the radius for various Tsus, when other parameters are kept at their reference values

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Fig. 12

Dependence of the deposition rate on the inlet velocity Vinlet: (a) normalized average growth rate versus Vinlet; (b) deposition rate distribution along the radius for various Vinlet, when other parameters are kept at their reference values

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Fig. 13

Effect of wafer rotating speed on the deposition rate: (a) normalized average growth rate versus ; (b) deposition rate distribution along the radius for various , when other parameters are kept at their reference values

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Fig. 14

Effect of precursor concentration ratio V/III on the deposition rate: (a) normalized average growth rate versus V/III; (b) deposition rate distribution along the radius for various V/III, when other parameters are kept at their reference values

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