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Research Papers

Characterization of Interfacial Mass Transfer Rate of Stored Liquids

[+] Author and Article Information
Dibakar Rakshit

Centre for Energy Studies,
Indian Institute of Technology Delhi,
Hauz Khas 110016, India
e-mail dibakar@iitd.ac.in

R. Narayanaswamy

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Curtin University,
Bentley 6845,
Western Australia, Australia

K. P. Thiagarajan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Maine,
Orono, ME 04469

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received February 24, 2014; final manuscript received December 2, 2014; published online January 13, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Samuel Sami.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 7(2), 021002 (Jun 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: TSEA-14-1039; doi: 10.1115/1.4029352 History: Received February 24, 2014; Revised December 02, 2014; Online January 13, 2015

A thermodynamic analysis of the two-phase physics involving a liquid–vapor combination has been studied under the regime of conjugate heat and mass transfer phenomena. An experiment has been designed and performed to estimate the interfacial mass transfer characteristics of a liquid–vapor system by varying the liquid temperature. The experimental setup consists of an instrumented tank partially filled with water and maintained at different temperatures. The evaporation of liquid from the interface and the gaseous condensation has been quantified by calculating the interfacial mass transfer rate for both covered and uncovered tanks. The dependence of interfacial mass transfer rate on the liquid–vapor interfacial temperature, fractional concentration of the evaporating liquid, the surface area of the liquid vapor interface, and the fill level of the liquid has been established through the present experimental study. An estimation of the overall mass transfer rate from the interface due to a concentration gradient shows an analogy with the multiphase heat transfer that takes place across the interface due to temperature gradient. It was seen that at low fill levels and with a temperature difference of about 30 °C between liquid and ullage, the mass transfer rate of a closed system was nearly doubled when compared to its open system counterpart.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Diffusion of water vapor through air between two planes x1 and x2

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Fig. 2

Schematic setup of the test rig (1. thermocouples, 2. conductivity probe at various test fill levels and top, 3. humidity sensing probe, 4. pressure transducer for measuring ullage pressure, and 5. cartridge heaters.)

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental setup with position of moisture sensing probe

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Fig. 4

Experimental and analytical relative humidity variation across tank height

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Fig. 5

Transient temperature history of 20% filled tank for bulk, interface, and ullage thermocouples

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Fig. 6

Interface mass transfer variation with temperature

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Fig. 7

Model of the heat and mass transfer in the tank with characteristics zone

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Fig. 8

Mass transfer variation with vapor pressure of ullage

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