Research Papers

Thermal Performance of Automobile Radiator Using Carbon Nanotube-Water Nanofluid—Experimental Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Sandesh S. Chougule

Discipline of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology, Indore,
Indore, MP 453446India
e-mail: sandesh_chougule@yahoo.com

S. K. Sahu

Assistant Professor
Discipline of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology, Indore,
Indore, MP 453446India
e-mail: sksahu@iiti.ac.in

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF THERMAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS. Manuscript received December 19, 2013; final manuscript received April 21, 2014; published online June 3, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Zahid Ayub.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 6(4), 041009 (Jun 03, 2014) (6 pages) Paper No: TSEA-14-1008; doi: 10.1115/1.4027678 History: Received December 19, 2013; Revised April 21, 2014

In the present study, the convective heat transfer enhancement of carbon nanotube (CNT)-water nanofluid has been studied experimentally inside an automobile radiator. Heat removal rate of the coolant flowing through the automobile radiators is of great importance for the optimization of fuel consumption. In this study, four different concentrations of nanofluids in the range of 0.15–1 vol. % were prepared with the addition of CNT nanoparticles into water. The CNT nanocoolants are synthesized by functionalization (FCNT) and surface treatment (SCNT) method. The effects of various parameters, namely synthesis method, variation in pH values and nanoparticle concentration on the Nusselt number are examined through the experimental investigation. Results demonstrate that both nanocoolants exhibit enormous change Nusselt number compared with water. The results of functionalized CNT nanocoolant with 5.5 pH exhibits better performance compared to the nanocoolant with pH value of 6.5 and 9. The surface treated CNT nanocoolant exhibits the deterioration in heat transfer performance. In addition, Nusselt number found to increase with the increase in the nanoparticle concentration and nanofluid velocity.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Choi, S., U. S., Singer, D. A., and Wang, H. P., 1995, Development and Application of Non-Newtonian Flows, Vol. 231, ASME, New York, pp. 99–105.
Chougule, S. S., Sahu, S. K., and Pise, A. T., 2014, “Thermal Performance of Two Phase Thermosyphon Flat-Plate Solar Collectors by Using Nanofluid,” ASME J. Sol. Energy, 136(1), p. 014503. [CrossRef]
Chougule, S. S., Sahu, S. K., and Pise, A. T., 2013, “Performance Enhancement of Two Phase Thermosyphon Flat-Plate Solar Collectors by Using Surfactant and Nanofluid,” Front. Heat Pipes, 4(1), pp. 1–6. [CrossRef]
Kulkarni, D. P., Vajjha, R. S., Das, D. K., and Oliva, D., 2011 “Application of Aluminum Oxide Nanofluids in Diesel Electric Generators Jacket Water Coolant,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 28, pp. 1774–1781. [CrossRef]
Vajjha, R. S., Das, D. K., and Namburu, P. K., 2010, “Numerical Study of Fluid Dynamic and Heat Transfer Performance of Al2O3 and CuO Nanofluids in the Flat Tubes of a Radiator,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 31(4), pp. 613–621. [CrossRef]
Peyghambarzadeh, S. M., Hashemabadi, S. H., Jamnani, M. S., and Hoseini, S. H., 2011, “Improving the Cooling Performance of Automobile Radiator With Al2O3/Water Nanofluid,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31(10), pp. 1833–1838. [CrossRef]
Leong, K. Y., Saidur, R., Kazi, S. N., and Mamun, A. H., 2010, “Performance Investigation of an Automotive Car Radiator Operated With Nanofluid-Based Coolants (Nanofluid as a Coolant in a Radiator,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 30(17–18), pp. 2685–2692. [CrossRef]
Peyghambarzadeh, S. M., Hashemabadi, S. H., Hoseini, S. H., and Jamnani, M. S., 2011, “Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Water/Ethylene Glycol Based Nanofluids as a New Coolant in the Car Radiator,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 38(9), pp. 1283–1290. [CrossRef]
Naraki, M., Peyghambarzadeh, S. M., Hashemabadi, S. H., and Vermahmoudi, Y., 2013, “Parametric Study of Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient of CuO/Water Nanofluids in a Car Radiator,” Int. J. Therm. Sciences, 66, pp. 82–90. [CrossRef]
Choi, S., 2006, “Nanofluids for Improved Efficiency in Cooling Systems,” Heavy Vehicle Systems Review, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL.
Chougule, S. S., and Pise, A. T., 2012, “Studies of CNT Nanofluid in Two Phase system,” Int. J. Global Technol. Initiatives, 1, pp. F14–F20.
Ding, Y., Alias, H., Wen, D., and Williams, R. A., 2006, “Heat Transfer of Aqueous Suspensions of Carbon Nanotubes (CNT Nanofluids),” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49(1–2), pp. 240–252. [CrossRef]
Garg, P., Alvarado, J. L., Marsh, C., Carlson, T. A., Kessler, D. A., and Annamalai, K., 2009, “An Experimental Study on the Effect of Ultrasonication on Viscosity and Heat Transfer Performance of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Based Aqueous Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(21–22), pp. 5090–5101. [CrossRef]
Kolade, B., Goodson, K. E., and Eaton, J. K., 2009, “Convective Performance of Nanofluids in a Laminar Thermally Developing Tube Flow,” ASME J. Heat. Transfer, 131(5), p. 052402. [CrossRef]
Amrollahi, A., Rashidi, A. M., Lotfi, R., Emami, M. M., and Kashefi, K., 2010, “Convection Heat Transfer of Functionalized MWNT in Aqueous Fluids in Laminar and Turbulent Flow at the Entrance Region,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 37(6), pp. 717–723. [CrossRef]
Liu, Z. H., and Liao, L., 2010, “Forced Convective Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Aqueous Drag-Reducing Fluid With Carbon Nanotubes Added,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 49(12), pp. 2331–2338. [CrossRef]
Fonseca, M. A., Freitas, S., Lamas, B., Abreu, B., Calisto, H., Martins, N., and Oliveira, M., 2013, “Carbon Nanotubes in a Fluidic Medium: Critical Analysis, Physical and Chemical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes,” Physical and Chemical Properties of Carbon Nanotubes, S.Suzuki, ed., InTech, Rijeka, Croatia.
Chougule, S. S., and Sahu, S. K., 2014, “Comparative Study of Cooling Performance of Automobile Radiator Using Al2O3/Water and CNT/Water Nanofluid,” ASME J. Nanotech. Eng. Med., 5(1), p. 011001. [CrossRef]
Chougule, S. S., and Sahu, S. K., 2013, “Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Augmentation in Automobile Radiator With CNT/Water Nanofluid,” 4th ASME-International Conference on Micro/Nanoscale Heat & Mass Transfer (MNHMT2013), Hong Kong, China, Dec. 11–14. [CrossRef]
Chougule, S. S., and Sahu, S. K., 2013, “Comparison of Augmented Thermal Performance of CNT/Water and Al2O3/Water Nanofluids in Transition Flow Through a Straight Circular Duct Fitted With Helical Screw Tape Inserts,” 22nd National and 11th ISHMT-ASME Heat and Mass Transfer Conference, Kharagpur, India, Dec. 28–31.
Chougule, S. S., Pise, A. T., and Madane, P. A., 2012, “Performance of Nanofluid-Charged Solar Water Heater by Solar Tracking System,” IEEE-ICAESM-2012, Nagapattiam, India, Vol. 6, pp. 247–254.
Pise, A. T., and Chougule, S. S., 2011, “Experimental Investigation Heat Transfer Augmentation of Solar Heat Pipe Collector by Using Nanofluid,” 21st National and 10th ISHMT-ASME Heat and Mass Transfer Conference, Madras, India, Dec. 27–30.
Xie, H., Lee, H., Youn, W., and Choi, W., 2003, “Nanofluids Containing Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Their Enhanced Thermal Conductivities,” J. Appl. Phys., 94(8), pp. 4967–4971. [CrossRef]
Coleman, H. W., and Steele, W. G., 1989, Experimental and Uncertainty Analysis for Engineers, Wiley, New York.
ANSI/ASME, 1985, “Measurement Uncertainty,” Paper No. PTC 19.
Dittus, F. W., and Boelter, L. M. K., 1930, Heat Transfer in Automobile Radiators of Tubular Type, University of California, Berkeley, CA, pp. 13–18.
Yousefi, T., Shojaeizadeh, E., Veysi, F., and Zinadini, S., 2012, “An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of pH Variation of MWCNT–H2O Nanofluid on the Efficiency of a Flat-Plate Solar Collector,” Sol. Energy, 86(2), pp. 771–779. [CrossRef]
Assael, M. J., Metaxa, I. N., Arvanitidis, J., Christofilos, D., and Lioutas, C., 2005, “Thermal Conductivity Enhancement in Aqueous Suspensions of Carbon Multi-Walled and Double-Walled Nanotubes in the Presence of Two Different Dispersants,” Int. J. Thermophys., 26(3), pp. 647–664. [CrossRef]
Murshed, S. M. S., Leong, K. C., and Yang, C., 2008, “Investigations of Thermal Conductivity and Viscosity of Nanofluids,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 47(5), pp. 560–568. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

SEM image at magnification of 10,000 × of CNT particles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Nusselt number variation for different nanoparticle concentration nanocoolant

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Effect of pH Variation on nanocoolant heat transfer performance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Variation of Nusselt number for pure water with existing correlations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) The fin and flat tube of the automobile radiator (b) stadium-shape of the radiator flat tube

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of synthesis method on nanocoolant heat transfer performance




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In