0
Research Papers

Design of a Self-Driven Liquid Metal Cooling Device for Heat Dissipation of Hot Chips in a Closed Cabinet

[+] Author and Article Information
Peipei Li, Yixin Zhou

Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical
Engineering and Key Lab of Cryogenics,
Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China

Jing Liu

Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical
Engineering and Key Lab of Cryogenics,
Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China
Department of Biomedical Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: jliu@mail.ipc.ac.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 22, 2012; final manuscript received May 28, 2013; published online October 25, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Mark North.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 6(1), 011009 (Oct 25, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: TSEA-12-1058; doi: 10.1115/1.4024786 History: Received April 22, 2012; Revised May 28, 2013

Tremendous attentions have been focused on thermal management to control the temperature of many advanced integrated electronic devices. The liquid metal cooling has recently been validated as a highly effective method to dissipate heat from hot chips. In this study, a practical design and implementation of a buoyancy effect driven liquid metal cooling device for the automatic thermal management of hot chips in a closed cabinet were demonstrated. The principles, especially the theory for convective thermal resistance of liquid metal cooling was provided for guiding optimization of the device. A model prototype was then fabricated and tested. Experiments were performed when two simulated hot chips in the closed cabinet worked at different heat loads and different angles with the horizontal plane. It was shown that for the one chip case, the cooling device could maintain the chip temperature to below 85.1 °C at the ambient temperature 20 °C when the heat load was about 122 W. The cooling performance of the device could achieve better when the angle between the cabinet and the horizontal plane varied from 0 °C to 90 °C. With two chips working simultaneously, both chips had close temperature and hot spot did not appear easily when subject to large power, which will help reduce thermal stress and enhance reliability of the system. The practical value of the self-driven liquid metal cooling device is rather evident. Given its reliability, simplicity, and efficiency, such device can possibly be used for heat dissipation of multichip in closed space in the future.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Garimella, S. V., Fleischer, A. S., Murthy, J. Y., Keshavarzi, A., Prasher, R., Patel, C., Bhavnani, S. H., Venkatasubramanian, R., Mahajan, R., Joshi, Y., Sammakia, B., Myers, B. A., Chorosinski, L., Baelmans, M., Sathyamurthy, P., and Raad, P. E., 2008, “Thermal Challenges in Next-Generation Electronic Systems,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol., 31(4), pp. 801–815. [CrossRef]
Bessaih, R., and Kadja, M., 2000, “Turbulent Natural Convection Cooling of Electronic Components Mounted on a Vertical Channel,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 20, pp. 141–154. [CrossRef]
Anandan, S. S., and Ramalingam, V., 2008, “Thermal Management of Electronics: A Review of Literature. Thermal Science,” Therm. Sci., 12(2), pp. 5–26. [CrossRef]
Sezai, I., and Mohamad, A. A., 2000, “Natural Convection From a Discrete Heat Source on the Bottom of a Horizontal Enclosure,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43, pp. 2257–2266. [CrossRef]
Lai, Y., Cordero, N., Barthel, F., Tebbe, F., Kuhn, J., Apfelbeck, R., and Würtenbergeret, D., 2009, “Liquid Cooling of Bright LEDs for Automotive Applications,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 29, pp. 1239–1244. [CrossRef]
Ma, Z. S., and Yao, S. G., 2009, “Experimental Investigation of a Novel Heat Pipe Cold Plate for Electronic Cooling,” J. Sci. Ind. Res., 68, pp. 861–865.
Tierney, J. K., and Koczkur, E., 1971, “Free Convection Heat Transfer from a Totally Enclosed Cabinet Containing Simulated Electronic Equipment,” IEEE Trans. Parts Hybrids Packag., 7(3), pp. 115–123. [CrossRef]
Avenas, Y., Ivanova, M., Popova, N., Schaeffer, C., and Schanen, J. L., 2002, “Thermal Analysis of Thermal Spreaders Used in Power Electronic Cooling,” Proceedings of the Industry Applications Conference, 37th IAS Annual Meeting, Vol. 1, pp. 216–221.
Vasiliev, L. L., 2005, “Heat Pipes in Modern Heat Exchangers,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 25, pp. 1–19. [CrossRef]
Saha, M., Feroz, C. M., Ahmed, F., and Mujib, T., 2012, “Thermal Performance of an Open Loop Closed End Pulsating Heat Pipe,” Heat Mass Transfer, 48, pp. 259–265. [CrossRef]
Muraoka, I., Ramos, F. M., and Vlassov, V. V., 2001, “Analysis of the Operational Characteristics and Limits of a Loop Heat Pipe With Porous Element in the Condenser,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 44, pp. 2287–2297. [CrossRef]
Xuan, Y. M., and Lian, W. L., 2011, “Electronic Cooling Using an Automatic Energy Transport Device Based on Thermomagnetic Effect,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31, pp. 1487–1494. [CrossRef]
Misale, M., Garibaldi, P., Passos, J. C., and Bitencourt, G. G., 2007, “Experiments in a Single-phase Natural Circulation Mini-loop,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 31, pp. 111–1120. [CrossRef]
Ma, K. Q., and Liu, J., 2007, “Heat-Driven Liquid Metal Cooling Device for the Thermal Management of a Computer Chip,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 40, pp. 4722–4729. [CrossRef]
Li, P. P., and Liu, J., 2011, “Self-driven Electronic Cooling Based on Thermosyphon Effect of Room Temperature Liquid Metal,” ASME J. Electron. Packag., 133, p. 041009. [CrossRef]
“International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS 2005 ed.),” http://www.itrs.net/links/2005itrs/home2005.htm
Deng, Y. G., and Liu, J., 2009, “Corrosion Development Between Liquid Metal and Four Typical Metal Substrates Used in Chip Cooling Device,” Appl. Phys. A, 95, pp. 907–915. [CrossRef]
Lubarsky, B., and Kaufman, S. J., 1956, “Review of Experimental Investigations of Liquid Metal Heat Transfer,” NASA Report No. 1270.
Tu, D. Y., 1999, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Machine, China Building Industry Press, Beijing.
Ma, K. Q., and Liu, J., 2007, “Liquid Metal Cooling in Thermal Management of Computer Chips,” Front. Power Eng. China, 1(4), pp. 384–402. [CrossRef]
Yung, K. C., Liem, H., Choy, H. S., and Lun, W. K., 2010, “Thermal Performance of High Brightness LED Array Package on PCB,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 37, pp. 1266–1272. [CrossRef]
Liu, J., and Zhou, Y. X., 2002, “A Computer Chip Cooling Method Which Uses Low Melting Point Metal and Its Alloys as the Cooling Fluid,” China Patent No. 021314195.
Deng, Y. G., and Liu, J., 2010, “A liquid Metal Cooling System for the Thermal Management of High Power LEDs,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 37, pp. 788–791. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic (a) and thermal resistance net work (b) of self-driven liquid metal cooling system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Design schematic layout of total cooling device and prototype of cooling device

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Temperature of the below chip with heat load 20.2 W when the cabinet is vertical

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Temperature of hot chip when only one chip works

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic of cooling device when cabinet has different angles with horizontal plane

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Temperature of the below chip with heat load 20.2 W when the cabinet is horizontal

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature of hot chip when cabinet has different angles with horizontal plane

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Schematic of practical assembly of cooling device for chip with different angles with horizontal plane

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Temperatures of hot chips with (a) heat loads of upper chip and below chip as 20.2 W and 80.7 W, respectively, and (b) heat loads of upper chip and below chip as 80.7 W and 20.2 W, respectively

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In