0
Research Papers

On the Replacement of Shoe-Wheel Brakes by Pad-Disk for Railroad Freight Cars

[+] Author and Article Information
Sergio José Romano

Railway Laboratory Consultant
e-mail: sjromano@uol.com.br

Francisco de Carvalho Santos

Railway Laboratory Consultant
e-mail: carvalho16@uol.com.br

Auteliano A. Santos

e-mail: aute@fem.unicamp.br
School of Mechanical Engineering – Unicamp,
Rua Mendeleyev, 200,
13083-860 Campinas (SP), Brazil

www.fem.unicamp.br/∼lafer.

Manuscript received September 13, 2012; final manuscript received April 25, 2013; published online October 21, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Ranganathan Kumar.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 6(1), 011002 (Oct 21, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: TSEA-12-1152; doi: 10.1115/1.4024701 History: Received September 13, 2012; Revised April 25, 2013

Most of railroad freight cars use brake shoes directly applied onto the wheels. This system causes wheel heating, which in turn gives rise to thermal stresses and loss of mechanical strength. An alternate solution is a system of brake disks and pads, which would not heat the wheels, like disk brakes. Because temperature is one major factor affecting braking performance, a study of the viability of replacing shoe brakes by disk brakes must evaluate and compare the heating of wheels and disks. The present work evaluates the heating of disk-pad systems when used for braking freight cars in the same conditions regularly applied to shoe-wheel brakes. In addition, stop distance for both systems are evaluated for regular speeds of freight railroads. Preliminary numerical simulations were done to choose the critical brake condition and to check whether the expected temperatures would exceed the temperature limits, damaging the friction materials and systems. Following that, real scale tests were conducted in critical braking conditions for both types of brake systems. Dynamometer tests were performed in real scale at the Railroad Laboratory of the State University of Campinas, Brazil. Results showed that, as far as system heating is concerned, there is nothing to prevent the replacement of the current system by a disk-pad system. Besides, the stop distance for both systems is also in the recommended range.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

ABA, Air Brake Association, 1975, Engineering and Design of Railway braking Systems, Air Brake Association, Chicago, IL.
Roza, L. C., 1989, Railroad Brake Systems Notes, Mechanical Design Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas (SP), Brazil.
Santos, A. A., 1996, “Determinação do Coeficiente Global de Transferência de Calor em Rodas Ferroviárias,” Ph.D. thesis, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas (SP), Brazil.
Wetenkamp, H. R., Eck, B. J., and Rhine, P. E., 1980, “The Influence of Brake Shoes on the Temperature of Wheels in Railroad Service,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 102(1), pp. 32–36. [CrossRef]
IPT, Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas, 1988, Private Report and Communication, São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
Kim, M. S., 2012, “Development of the Braking Performance Evaluation Technology for High-Speed Brake Dynamometer,” Int. J. Syst. Eng. Appl. Dev., 6(1), pp. 122–129. Available at: http://www.universitypress.org.uk/journals/saed/17-752.pdf
LAFER, Laboratório Ferroviário DPM-FEM-Unicamp, 2002, “Procedimento de Ensaio BD-01,” Railroad Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Design, University of Campinas, http://www.fem.unicamp.br/∼lafer/lafer.htm
AAR, Association of American Railroads, 1996, “M-926 Brake Shoes, High Friction Composition or Metal Type,” Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices, Association of American Railroad, Washington, DC, pp. E42–E50.
Manocha, L. M., 2003, “High Performance Carbon–carbon Composites,” Sadhana, 28(1,2), pp. 349–358. [CrossRef]
Aguila, Z. J., 1999, “Formulação de Compósitos Reforçados com Fibras de Panox e Polpa de Aramida Utilizados em Materiais de Fricção,” Master Dissertation, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas (SP), Brazil.
AAR, Association of American Railroads, 1984, “M-107 Wrought Carbon Steel Wheels,” Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices, Association of American Railroad, Washington, DC.
AAR, Association of American Railroads, 1985, “M-208 Cast Carbon Steel Wheels,” Manual of Standards and Recommended Practices, Association of American Railroad, Washington, DC.
Weaver, G. R., Archibald, P. A., Brenneman, E. B., and Cabble, G. M., 1969, “Investigation of Thermal Capacity of Railroad Wheels Using COBRA Brake Shoes,” Proceedings of ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, CA.
Berg, N. A., and Kucera, W. J., 1970, “A Review of Thermal Damage in Railroad Wheels,” Proceedings of Air Brake Association Annual Meeting (ABA), Chicago, IL.
Berg, N. A., and Albert, R. H., 1972, “Tread Braking Versus the Wheel,” Proceedings of Air Brake Association Annual Meeting (ABA), Chicago, IL.
Wandrisco, J. M., and Dewez, Jr., 1973, “Study of Defects That Originate and Developed in the Treads of Railroad Wheels During Service,” ASME Railroad Conference, ASME, St. Louis, MO, Paper No. 60 RR–01.
Santos, A. A., and Rodrigues Filho, F., 1995, “Aquecimento em Rodas Ferroviárias Durante e após Frenagens Contínuas Prolongadas,” Proceedings of XIV Congresso Brasileiro de Engenharia Mecânica (COBEM), Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences, Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil.
Stone, D. H., Blaine, D. G., and Carpenter, G. F., 1994, “Effect of High Horsepower Grade Braking on AAR High Friction Composition Brake Shoes,” Proceedings of Air Brake Association Annual Meeting (ABA), Chicago, IL.
Olesiak, Z., Pyryev, Y., and Yevtushenko, A., 1997, “Determination of Temperature and Wear During Braking,” Wear, 210(1,2), pp. 120–126. [CrossRef]
Rodrigues Filho, F., Rodrigues, C., and Roza, L. C., 1991, “Novas Considerações Sobre a Dispersão da Força de Frenagem,” Proceedings of V Encontro Nacional de Freios – ENFRE, São Paulo (SP), Brazil.
Harstock, D. L., and Fasch, J. W., 1999, “Effect of Pad/Caliper Thickness and Pad Length on Thermo-Elastic Instability in Disk Brakes,” ASME J. Tribol., 122(3), pp. 511–518. [CrossRef]
Santos, A. A., 1997, “Variação do Coeficiente de Atrito em Sapatas Ferroviárias e sua Influência sobre o Processo de Frenagem,” Proceedings of XV Congresso Brasileiro de Engenharia Mecânica (COBEM), Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences, Bauru (SP), Brazil.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Wheel finite element grid generated by the ansys@ software

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Disk finite element grid generated by the ansys@ software. Detail of the evaluated section.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Dynamometer of the Railroad Laboratory of the Department of Mechanical Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Unicamp

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Temperature simulation results on wheel surface for heavy grade as a function of braking time ( °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Wheel temperature distribution for heavy grade condition ( °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Results of temperature calculation on the disk surface for heavy grade condition ( °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Disk temperature distribution for heavy grade condition ( °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Temperature variation of shoe-wheel pair, heavy grade SF 11 test ( °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Temperature variation of shoe-wheel pair, heavy grade SF 12 test ( °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Temperature variation of shoe-wheel pair, heavy grade SF 16 test ( °C)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Temperature variation of pad-disk friction pair, heavy grade M03 test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Theoretical–experimental comparison of temperature variation for pad-disk friction pair

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Friction coefficient variation for the shoe-wheel friction pair, heavy grade SF 11 test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Friction coefficient variation for the disk-pad friction pair, heavy grade M03 test

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Theoretical–experimental comparison of temperature variation for the shoe-wheel friction pair (SF11)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In