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Research Papers

Enhanced Performance of Solar Diffusion Driven Desalination

[+] Author and Article Information
Fadi Alnaimat

e-mail: falnaimat@ufl.edu

James F. Klausner

Department of Mechanical &
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL 32611

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 8, 2012; final manuscript received March 5, 2013; published online September 27, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Arun Muley.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 5(4), 041001 (Sep 27, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: TSEA-12-1082; doi: 10.1115/1.4024020 History: Received June 08, 2012; Revised March 05, 2013

This study concerns an improvement in the solar diffusion driven desalination process under dynamic operating conditions for decentralized water production. The utilization of a heat exchanger for the solar diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process to recuperate the latent heat of condensation has been examined. It is found that the recuperated latent heat is best used for preheating the air inlet to the evaporator. Improvements in the system performance are achieved by increasing fresh water production by 30% for the solar DDD with a 0.75 effectiveness in the integrated heat exchanger. A theoretical model is implemented for analyzing the integrated desalination system, and a numerical assessment of the system performance for different operating conditions is presented. It is found that the installation of a heat exchanger for heat recovery in the air stream prior to entering the direct contact condenser increases the water production rate and reduces the specific energy consumption. It is concluded that the delayed operating mode for the solar DDD with an integrated heat exchanger is the best operating mode.

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References

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Li, Y., Klausner, J. F., Mei, R., and Knight, J., 2006, “Direct Contact Condensation in Packed Beds,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49, pp. 4751–4761. [CrossRef]
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Alnaimat, F., and Klausner, J. F., 2012, “Solar Diffusion Driven Desalination for Decentralized Water Production,” Desalination, 289, pp. 35–44. [CrossRef]
Khan, J. R., Klausner, J. F., Ziegler, D. P., and Garimella, S., 2010, “Diffusion Driven Desalination for Simultaneous Fresh Water Production and Desulfurization,” ASME J. Therm. Sci. Eng. Appl., 2, pp. 1–14. [CrossRef]
National Solar Radiation Database, 2005, “1991–2005 National Solar Radiation Database,” http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1991-2005/

Figures

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Fig. 1

Solar diffusion driven desalination

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Fig. 2

Energy flow through the heat exchanger control volume

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Fig. 3

Solar heat input, saline water tank temperature, and condenser and evaporator inlet water temperatures within the solar DDD system with an integrated heat exchanger

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Fig. 4

Heat exchanger inlet and outlet air temperatures

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Fig. 5

Fresh water production for the solar DDD system with a heat exchanger

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Fig. 6

Distillation efficiency and specific energy consumption of the solar DDD system with a recuperative heat exchanger

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Fig. 7

Distillation efficiency and total distillate production for variable heat exchanger effectiveness

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Fig. 8

Saline water tank temperature for different initial tank temperatures

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Fig. 9

Total water production for different initial saline water tank temperatures

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Fig. 10

Total water production for different initial saline water tank volumes

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