0
Research Papers

Experimental Study of Solar Pond Coupled With Forced Circulation Crystallizer as Major Stages of Proposed Zero Discharge Desalination Process

[+] Author and Article Information
Farshad Farahbod

Department of Chemical Engineering,
Firoozabad Branch, Islamic Azad University,
Firoozabad, Fars, Iran
e-mail: mf_fche@iauf.ac.ir

Sara Farahmand

Molasadra Avenue Engineering Building,
School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering,
Shiraz, Iran
e-mail: sfarahmand2005@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 13, 2013; final manuscript received August 25, 2013; published online November 8, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Jovica R. Riznic.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 6(2), 021002 (Nov 08, 2013) (7 pages) Paper No: TSEA-13-1053; doi: 10.1115/1.4025420 History: Received March 13, 2013; Revised August 25, 2013

Pretreatment, solar pond (SP), and forced circulation crystallizer (FCC) are the basic stages of one option to provide the goals of zero discharge desalination (ZDD) process. This work represents the performance of a solar pond that is coupled with forced circulation crystallizer as second and third stages of proposed zero discharge desalination process. The purpose of ZDD in this paper is gathering fresh water and saline crystals from effluent wastewater of the desalination unit of Mobin petrochemical complex. So, the SP unit is constructed after the pretreatment unit to concentrate the treated wastewater to about 20 wt. % as a suited feed for the FCC unit. Effects of solar insolation rate are investigated experimentally, during a year. In addition, the effect of cooling water flow rate of FCC on quality of effluent stream from SP as feed crystallizer is studied in this paper. The experimental results show the maximum evaporation rate from SP is obtained 5 l/(m2·d) when the insolation rate was about 2.5 × 104 kJ/(m2·d). Experiments show the suitable range of crystals growth (710 μm to 830 μm) in FCC is occurred when the cooling water flow rate in condenser is 9 kg/min. The size and the color of produced salt crystals will be optimized in this flow rate and energy consumption is measured as 6.98 kW·h.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Mahdi, J. T., Smith, B. E., and Sharif, A. O., 2011, “An Experimental Wick-Type Solar Still System: Design and Construction,” Desalination, 267(3), pp. 233–238. [CrossRef]
Abdel-Rehima, Z., and Lasheen, A., 2007, “Experimental and Theoretical Study of a Solar Desalination System Located in Cairo, Egypt,” Desalination, 217(1), pp. 52–64. [CrossRef]
Giesta, M. C., Pina, H. L., Milhazes, J. P., and Tavares, C., 2009, “Solar Pond Modeling With Density and Viscosity Dependent on Temperature and Salinity,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 52(3), pp. 2849–2857. [CrossRef]
Prasanna, K. S., and Prasad, T. J., 1999, “Formation and Spreading of Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water Mass,” J. Geophys. Res., [Oceans] (1978–2012), 104, pp. 1455–1464. [CrossRef]
Wang, Z., Dimarco, S. F., Jochens, A. E., and Ingle, S., 2013, “High Salinity Events in the Northern Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman,” Deep-Sea Res., Part I, 74, pp. 14–24. [CrossRef]
Farahbod, F., Mowla, D., Jafari Nasr, M. R., and Soltanieh, M., 2012, “Investigation of Solar Desalination Pond Performance Experimentally and Mathematically,” ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol., 134(2), 041201. [CrossRef]
Izquierdo, F., Castro, Hermida, J. A., and Fenoy, S., 2011, “Detection of Microsporidia in Drinking Water, Wastewater and Recreational Rivers,” Water Res., 45(2), pp. 4837–4842. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Minasian, A. N., and Al-Karaghouli, A. A., 1995, “An Improved Solar Still: The Wick-Basin Type,” Energy Convers. Manage., 36, pp. 213–217. [CrossRef]
Al-Hussaini, H., and Smith, I. K., 1995, “Enhancing of Solar Still Productivity Using Vacuum Technology,’’ Energy Convers. Manage., 36, pp. 1047–1051. [CrossRef]
Mink, G., Horvath, L., Evseev, E. G., and Kudish, A. I., 1998, “Design Parameters, Performance Testing and Analysis of a Double-Glazed, Air-Blown Solar Still With Thermal Energy Recycle,” Sol. Energy, 64(4–6), pp. 265–277. [CrossRef]
Khalifa, A.-J.N., Al-Jubouri, A. S., and Abed, M. K., 1999, “An Experimental Study on Modified Simple Solar Stills,” Energy Convers. Manage., 40, pp. 1835–1847. [CrossRef]
Garmana, M. A., and Muntasser, M. A., 2008, “Sizing and Thermal Study of Salinity Gradient Solar Ponds Connecting With the MED Desalination Unit,” Desalination, 222(3), pp. 689–695. [CrossRef]
Roca, L., Berenguel, M., Yebra, L., and Alarcón-Padilla, D.C., 2008, “Solar Field Control for Desalination Plants,” Sol. Energy, 82, pp. 727–786. [CrossRef]
Amiri, M. C., and Samiei, M., 2007, “Enhancing Permeate Flux in a RO Plant by Controlling Membrane Fouling,” Desalination, 207, pp. 361–369. [CrossRef]
Tang, Y., Chong, T. H., and Fane, A. G., 2011, “Colloidal Interactions and Fouling of NF and RO Membranes: A Review,” Adv. Colloid Interface Sci., 1674, pp. 126–143. [CrossRef]
Plewik, R., Synowiec, P., Wójcik, J., and Kuś, A., 2011, “Suspension Flow in Crystallizer With and Without Hydraulic Classification,” Chem. Eng. Res. Des., 88(1), pp. 1194–1199. [CrossRef]
Farahbod, F., Mowla, D., Jafari Nasr, M. R., and Soltanieh, M., 2012, “Experimental Study of Forced Circulation Evaporator in Zero Discharge Desalination Process,” Desalination, 285(3), pp. 352–358. [CrossRef]
Jayanthi, M., MariappanM. J., Thengaraj, N. J., and Kannadevan, T., 2005, “Design and Development of Non Convective Solar Pond,” Ecol. Environ. Conserv., 11, pp. 359–362.
Srithar, K., and Mani, A., 2004, “Analysis of a Single Cover FRP Flat Plate Collector for Treating Tannery Effluent,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 24, pp. 873–883. [CrossRef]
Tamimi, A., and Rawajfeh, K., 2007, “Lumped Modeling of Solar-Evaporative Ponds Charged From the Water of the Dead Sea,” Desalination, 216, pp. 356–366. [CrossRef]
Velmurugana, V., and Srithar, K., 2007, “Solar Stills Integrated With a Mini Solar Pond—Analytical Simulation and Experimental Validation,” Desalination, 216, pp. 232–224. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

A schematic representation of proposed zero discharge desalination process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A photograph of the used solar pond

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

A photograph of the used forced circulation crystallizer

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

A schematic representation of (a) one side of solar pond with the locations of instruments; (b) front cut of distilled water part beside saline water part; and (c) different layers of wastewater in solar pond

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Relation between density profile and height of wastewater in solar pond (from bottom to the top)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Various ambient average temperatures and related insolation rates during seasons

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Variation of insolation rate with time (7 a.m. till 7 p.m.) on Jun. 17, 2012

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Variation of average temperature of layers of wastewater and ambient temperature with different months (2012)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Variation of the evaporation rate with insolation rate for different months (through 2012)

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In