Research Papers

Performance Investigation of an Automotive Car Radiator Operated With Nanofluid as a Coolant

[+] Author and Article Information
Durgeshkumar Chavan

Associate Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Rajarambapu Institute of Technology,
Rajaramnagar, Maharshtra 415414, India
e-mail: dscrit@gmail.com

Ashok T. Pise

Professor and Head
Mechanical Engineering Department,
Government College of Engineering,
Karad, Maharashtra 415124, India
e-mail: ashokpise@yahoo.com

Manuscript received May 9, 2013; final manuscript received August 1, 2013; published online December 27, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Samuel Sami.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 6(2), 021010 (Dec 27, 2013) (5 pages) Paper No: TSEA-13-1081; doi: 10.1115/1.4025230 History: Received May 09, 2013; Revised August 01, 2013

Nanofluids are suspensions of metallic or nonmetallic nanopowders in base liquid and can be employed to increase heat transfer rate at various applications. In the present study, forced convective heat transfer in an Al2O3/water nanofluid has experimentally been compared to that of pure water in automobile radiator. Five different concentrations of nanofluids in the range of 0–1.0 vol. % have been prepared by the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles into the water. The test fluid flows through the automobile radiator consisted of 33 vertical tubes with elliptical cross section and air makes a cross flow inside the tube bank with constant speed. The test fluid flow rate has been changed in the range of 3 l/min to 8 l/min to have fully turbulent regime. Obtained results demonstrate that increasing the fluid circulating rate can improve the heat transfer performance. The application of the nanofluid with low concentration can enhance heat transfer efficiency up to 40–45% in comparison with pure water. The increase in heat transfer coefficient due to presence of nanoparticles is higher than the prediction of single phase heat transfer Dittus Boelter correlation used with nanofluid properties. These results can be implemented to optimize the size of an automobile radiator.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Kulkarni, D. P., Vajjha, R. S., Das, D. S., and Oliva, D., 2008, “Application of Aluminum Oxide Nanofluids in Diesel Electric Generator as Water Coolant,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 28(14-15), pp. 1774–1781. [CrossRef]
Yu, W., France, D. M., Choi, S. U. S., and Routbort, J. L., 2007, “Review and Assessment of Nanofluid Technology for Transportation and Other Applications” Energy System Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Report No. ANL/ESD./07-9.
Choi, S., 2006, “Nanofluids for Improved Efficiency in Cooling Systems,” Heavy Vehicle Systems Review, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL.
Peyghambarzadeh, S. M., Hashemabadi, S. H., Jamnani, M. S., and Hoseini, S. H., 2011, “Improving the Cooling Performance of Automobile Radiator With Al2O3/Water Nanofluid,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 31, pp. 1833–1838. [CrossRef]
Pak, B. C., and Cho, I. Y., 1998, “Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of Dispersed Fluids With Sub-Micron Metallic Oxide Particles,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 11, pp. 151–170. [CrossRef]
Wen, D., and Ding, Y., 2004, “Experimental Investigation Into the Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids at the Entrance Region Under Laminar Flow Conditions,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 47, pp. 5181–5188. [CrossRef]
Heris, S. Z., Etemad, S. G., and Nasr Esfahany, M., 2006, “Experimental Investigation of Oxide Nanofluids Laminar Flow Convective Heat Transfer,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 33(4), pp. 529–535. [CrossRef]
Lai, W. Y., Duculescu, B., Phelan, P. E., and Prasher, R. S., 2006, “Convective Heat Transfer With Nanofluids in a Single 1.02 mm Tube,” Proceedings of ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (AMECE 2006).
Jung, J. Y., Oh, H. S., and Kwak, Y. H., 2006, “Forced Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in Micro Channels,” Proceedings of ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IAMECE 2006).
Sharma, K. V., Syam Sundar, L., and Sharma, P. K., 2009, “Estimation of Heat Transfer Coefficient and Friction Factor in the Transition Flow With Low Volume Concentration of Al2O3 Nanofluid Flowing in a Circular Tube and With Twisted Tape Insert,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 36, pp. 503–507. [CrossRef]
Leong, K. Y., Saidur, R., Mahlia, T. M. I., and Yau, Y. H., 2012, “Modelling of Shell and Tube Heat Recovery Exchanger Operated With Nanofluid Based Coolants,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 55, pp. 808–816. [CrossRef]
Saeedinia, M., Akhavan-Behabadi, M. A., and Razi, P., 2012, “Thermal and Rheological Characteristics of CuO-Base Oil Nanofluid Flow Inside a Circular Tube,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 39, pp. 152–159. [CrossRef]
Syam Sundar, L., Naik, M. T., Sharma, K. V., Singh, M. K., And Siva Reddy, T. ch., 2012, “Experimental Investigation of Forced Convection Heat Transfer and Friction Factor in A Tube With Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanofluid,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 37, pp. 65–71. [CrossRef]
Pak, B. C., and Cho, I. Y., 1998, “Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of Dispered Fluids With Sub-Micron Metallic Oxide Particles,” Exp. Heat Transfer, 11, pp. 151–170. [CrossRef]
Xuan, Y., and Roetzel, W., 2000, “Conceptions for Heat Transfer Correlation of Nanofluids,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 43, pp. 3701–3708. [CrossRef]
Yu, W., and Choi, S. U. S., 2003, “The Role of Interfacial Layers in the Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids; a Renovated Maxwell Model,” J. Nanopart. Res., 5, pp. 167–171. [CrossRef]
Drew, D. A., and Passman, S. L., 1999, Theory of Multicomponent Fluids, Springer, Berlin.
Dittus, F. W., and Boelter, L. M. K., 1930, Heat Transfer in Automobile Radiators of Tubular Type, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, pp. 13–18.
Seider, E. N., and Tate, G. E., 1936, “Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Liquid in Tubes,” Ind. Eng. Chem., 28(12), pp. 1429–1435. [CrossRef]
Maiga.S. E. B., Nguyen, C. T., Galanis, N., Roy, G., and Mare, T., 2006, “Heat Transfer Enhancement in Turbulent Tube Flow Using Al2O3 Nanoparticles Suspension,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Heat Fluid Flow, 16(3), pp. 275–292. [CrossRef]
Jang, S. P., and Choi, S. U. S., 2004, “Role of Brownian Motion in the Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 84(21), pp. 4316–4318. [CrossRef]
Koo, J., and Kleinstreuer, C., 2005, “Impact Analysis of Nanoparticles Motion Mechanisms on the Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, 32(9), pp. 1111–1118. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Experimental setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Comparison between experimental result and results by Dittus Boelter and Seidar Tate correlation for water with inlet temperature of 45  °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Heat transfer coefficient enhancement for different volume concentration of nanofluid and Re number

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Nusselt number for different volume concentration of nanofluid and Re number

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of Experimental Nusselt number with predicted Nusselt number by correlations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of volume concentration on physical properties of nanofluids




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In