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Research Papers

Raman and Infrared Thermometry for Microsystems

[+] Author and Article Information
Leslie M. Phinney

Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM 87185
e-mail: lmphinn@sandia.gov

Wei-Yang Lu

Sandia National Laboratories,
Livermore, CA 94551

Justin R. Serrano

Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM 87185

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 22, 2011; final manuscript received October 5, 2012; published online July 15, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Srinath V. Ekkad.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 5(3), 031011 (Jul 15, 2013) (6 pages) Paper No: TSEA-11-1134; doi: 10.1115/1.4023395 History: Received September 22, 2011; Revised October 05, 2012

This paper reports and compares Raman and infrared thermometry measurements along the legs and on the shuttle of a SOI (silicon on insulator) bent-beam thermal microactuator. Raman thermometry offers micron spatial resolution and measurement uncertainties of ±10 K. Typical data collection times are a minute per location leading to measurement times on the order of hours for a complete temperature profile. Infrared thermometry obtains a full-field measurement so the data collection time is on the order of a minute. The spatial resolution is determined by the pixel size, 25 μm by 25 μm for the system used, and infrared thermometry also has uncertainties of ±10 K after calibration with a nonpackaged sample. The Raman and infrared measured temperatures agreed both qualitatively and quantitatively. For example, when the thermal microactuator was operated at 7 V, the peak temperature on an interior leg is 437 K ± 10 K and 433 K ± 10 K from Raman and infrared thermometry, respectively. The two techniques are complementary for microsystems characterization when infrared imaging obtains a full-field temperature measurement and Raman thermometry interrogates regions for which higher spatial resolution is required.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic and picture of the SOI thermal microactuator tested. (a) Schematic shows the thermal microactuator design. The widths of the microactuators legs and shuttle are 50 μm and 100 μm, respectively. The darker region on the anchors is the 900 μm × 900 μm area where aluminum was deposited to improve the connection to the bond wires. (b) Picture of a sample die. The center thermal microactuator was tested, and the microactuator legs are numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4 from bottom to top. Two wires bonded to each bond pad are visible in the image. The connections to the package are outside of the image.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Temperatures recorded from the infrared imaging system during the calibration for emissivities, e, ranging from 0.6 to 1.0, as a function of the thermocouple temperature. The agreement between the graphed thermocouple temperatures, the dotted line, and the values from the infrared system with an emissivity of 0.8 indicate that the appropriate emissivity is 0.8.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Temperature profiles on the thermal microactuator obtained using Raman thermometry on the thermal microactuator legs from the anchor (position-0 μm) to the shuttle (position-5500 μm) when powered with 5 V or 7 V. When viewed so that the motion occurs in an upward direction, leg 1 is at the bottom and leg 4 is at the top.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Temperature measurements on the thermal microactuator operated at 5 V and 7 V obtained using Raman thermometry at −10 μm, 1800 μm, and 3600 μm from edge of the anchor (position-0 μm) vertically upward in the direction of actuator motion. When viewed so that the motion occurs in an upward direction, leg 1 is at the bottom and leg 4 is at the top.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Raman temperature measurements made at 3 V, 5 V, 7 V, and 9 V along the shuttle of the thermal microactuator taken starting at 20 μm from the rounded end of the shuttle to the opposite end, with measurements every 150 μm. The four leg positions are marked.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Infrared thermal images of the thermal microactuator operated at (a) 3 V, (b) 5 V, and (c) 7 V. Temperature profiles in K are shown along the beams from the anchor to the substrate.

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Fig. 7

Temperature profiles on the thermal microactuator obtained using infrared thermometry when powered at 3 V, 5 V, and 7 V.

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Fig. 8

IR temperature measurements made at 3 V, 5 V, and 7 V along the shuttle of the thermal microactuator. The dip in temperature observed at ∼200 μm corresponds to a metal line patterned on the silicon for which the surface emissivity calibration is incorrect.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Magnified view of the boxed area in Fig. 7(c) with a different temperature color range to show the spatial resolution of the infrared thermometry. Each pixel represents 25 μm by μm. When a pixel is not completely on the actuator leg, the temperature is not accurate.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Raman (solid symbols) and IR (open symbols) temperature measurements made at 5 V and 7 V on the thermal microactuator legs from the anchor (position-0 μm) to the shuttle (position-5500 μm).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Raman (solid triangles) and IR (open triangles) temperature measurements made at 3 V, 5 V, and 7 V along the centerline of the thermal microactuator shuttle.

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