By generating helical swirling motion inside a tube with a twisted-tape insert, forced convective heat transfer is significantly enhanced. The primary mechanism entails imparting a centrifugal force component to the longitudinal fluid motion, which superimposes secondary circulation over the main axial flow to promote cross-stream mixing. Based on experimental flow visualization and computational modeling of single-phase laminar flows, a fundamental scaling of the cross-sectional vortex structure and a parametric analysis of the primary enhancement mechanisms in single-phase flows are delineated. Heat transfer coefficient and friction factor correlations for both laminar and turbulent regimes are presented, and the damping effect of swirl on the transition region is highlighted. In flow boiling with net vapor generation, tape-twist-induced helical swirl pushes liquid droplets from the core to the wall to enhance heat transfer and delay dryout. In subcooled boiling, the radial pressure gradient due to the swirl promotes vapor removal from the heated surface to retard vapor blanketing and accommodate higher heat fluxes. The scaling and phenomenological descriptions of the underlying vapor-liquid transport in these different boiling modes and regimes are presented along with any available predictive correlations.