The performance goal of modern gas turbine engines, both land-base and air-breathing engines, can be achieved by increasing the turbine inlet temperature (TIT). The level of TIT in the near future can reach as high as 1700 °C for utility turbines and over 1900 °C for advanced military engines. Advanced and innovative cooling techniques become one of the crucial major elements supporting the development of modern gas turbines, both land-based and air-breathing engines with continual increment of turbine inlet temperature (TIT) in order to meet higher energy demand and efficiency. This paper discusses state-of-the-art airfoil cooling techniques that are mainly applicable in the mainbody and trailing edge section of turbine airfoil. Potential internal cooling designs for near-term applications based on current manufacturing capabilities are identified. A literature survey focusing primarily on the past four to five years has also been performed.