Efficient conversion of sunlight into useful heat or work is of increasing global interest. Solar-to-thermal energy conversion, as opposed to solar-to-electricity, is enabled by solar thermal collectors that convert sunlight into heat at some useful temperature. We review here recent developments in solar thermal energy conversion. Our emphasis is on “direct-absorption” solar thermal collectors, in which incident sunlight is absorbed directly by a working fluid. This contrasts with conventional solar thermal collectors where the sunlight strikes and is absorbed by a solid receiver, which then transfers heat to the working fluid. Both liquid-based and gas-based direct-absorption collectors are described, although liquid-based systems are emphasized. We propose that if “direct-absorption” technologies could be developed further, it would open up a number of emerging opportunities, including applications exploiting thermochemical and photocatalytic reactions and direct absorption of a binary fluid for absorption refrigeration.