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Research Papers

Computational Study and Optimization of Laminar Heat Transfer and Pressure Loss of Double-Layer Microchannels for Chip Liquid Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
Gongnan Xie, Weihong Zhang

Engineering Simulation and Aerospace Computing (ESAC),
School of Mechnical Engineering,
Northwestern Polytechnical University,
P.O. Box 552,
710072 Xi'an, Shaanxi, China
e-mail: xgn@nwpu.edu.cn

Yanquan Liu

The Key Laboratory of Thermal Sciences and Engineering,
Xi'an Jiaotong University,
P.O. Box 1617,
710049 Xi'an, Shaanxi, China

Bengt Sunden

Division of Heat Transfer,
Department of Energy Sciences,
Lund University,
P.O.Box 118,
SE-22100 Lund, Sweden
e-mail: bengt.sunden@energy.lth.se

Manuscript received February 16, 2012; final manuscript received August 16, 2012; published online February 22, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Mehmet Arik.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 5(1), 011004 (Feb 22, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: TSEA-12-1029; doi: 10.1115/1.4007778 History: Received February 16, 2012; Revised August 16, 2012

The problem involved in the increase of the chip output power of high-performance integrated electronic devices is the failure of reliability because of excessive thermal loads. This requires advanced cooling methods to be incorporated to manage the increase of the dissipated heat. The traditional air-cooling can not meet the requirements of cooling heat fluxes as high as 100 W/cm2, or even higher, and the traditional liquid cooling is not sufficient either in cooling very high heat fluxes although the pressure drop is small. Therefore, a new generation of liquid cooling technology becomes necessary. Various microchannels are widely used to cool the electronic chips by a gas or liquid removing the heat, but these microchannels are often designed to be single-layer channels with high pressure drop. In this paper, the laminar heat transfer and pressure loss of a kind of double-layer microchannel have been investigated numerically. The layouts of parallel-flow and counter-flow for inlet/outlet flow directions are designed and then several sets of inlet flow rates are considered. The simulations show that such a double-layer microchannel can not only reduce the pressure drop effectively but also exhibits better thermal characteristics. Due to the negative heat flux effect, the parallel-flow layout is found to be better for heat dissipation when the flow rate is limited to a low value while the counter-flow layout is better when a high flow rate can be provided. In addition, the thermal performance of the single-layer microchannel is between those of parallel-flow layout and counter-flow layout of the double-layer microchannel at low flow rates. At last, the optimizations of geometry parameters of double-layer microchannel are carried out through changing the height of the upper-branch and lower-branch channels to investigate the influence on the thermal performance.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Double-layer microchannel heat sink

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Fig. 2

Computational domain of double-layer microchannel

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Fig. 3

Mesh independence test for single-layer microchannel

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Fig. 4

Pressure drop versus volumetric flow rate

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Fig. 5

Temperature difference versus volumetric flow rate

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Fig. 6

Relation between pressure drop and Reynolds number

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Fig. 7

Pressure drop plotted versus thermal resistance

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Fig. 8

Overall thermal resistance of different microchannels

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Fig. 9

Temperature contour map (K) of different cross sections for counter-flow configuration (left: Z = 1 mm; right: Z = 34 mm)

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Fig. 10

The contour of static temperature of double-layer microchannel (u = 0.5 m/s)

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Fig. 11

Bottom temperature distribution of double-layer microchannel along with flow direction (u = 0.5 m/s)

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Fig. 12

Overall thermal resistance versus height of lower channel (u = 0.5 m/s)

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Fig. 13

Ratio of heat dissipation versus height of lower channel (u = 0.5 m/s)

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