Research Papers

Impact, Fire, and Fluid Spread Code Coupling for Complex Transportation Accident Environment Simulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Alexander L. Brown

 Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1135albrown@sandia.gov

Gregory J. Wagner

 Sandia National Laboratories, 7011 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551gjwagne@sandia.gov

Kurt E. Metzinger

 Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-0372kemetzi@sandia.gov

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 4(2), 021004 (Apr 16, 2012) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4005735 History: Received August 04, 2011; Revised November 03, 2011; Published April 16, 2012; Online April 16, 2012

Transportation accidents frequently involve liquids dispersing in the atmosphere. An example is that of aircraft impacts, which often result in spreading fuel and a subsequent fire. Predicting the resulting environment is of interest for design, safety, and forensic applications. This environment is challenging for many reasons, one among them being the disparate time and length scales that are necessary to resolve for an accurate physical representation of the problem. A recent computational method appropriate for this class of problems has been described for modeling the impact and subsequent liquid spread. Because the environment is difficult to instrument and costly to test, the existing validation data are of limited scope and quality. A comparatively well instrumented test involving a rocket propelled cylindrical tank of water was performed, the results of which are helpful to understand the adequacy of the modeling methods. Existing data include estimates of drop sizes at several locations, final liquid surface deposition mass integrated over surface area regions, and video evidence of liquid cloud spread distances. Comparisons are drawn between the experimental observations and the predicted results of the modeling methods to provide evidence regarding the accuracy of the methods, and to provide guidance on the application and use of these methods.

Copyright © 2012 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 4

The primary spray from the impact from Ref. [2] (used with permission from photographers). The water is dyed red for clarity.

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Figure 5

An illustration of the layout of the collection pans (not to scale) with the numbering scheme for this report

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Figure 6

A visual representation of the initial geometry for case 7. The aluminum tank is colored light gray, the target and ground are darker gray

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Figure 7

Dimensionless kinetic energy in the three coordinate directions and summed for the Presto predictions with the low geometric fidelity

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Figure 8

Predicted Sauter mean diameters for all test cases

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Figure 9

Case 1 drop diameter prediction details

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Figure 10

Case 7 drop diameter prediction details

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Figure 11

Predicted parcel density at 2.5 s

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Figure 12

Case 7 spread predictions

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Figure 13

Particle mass as a function of time

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Figure 14

Experimental (a) and case 7 predicted (b) liquid spread at similar times

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Figure 15

A detailed comparison of the pan deposition data and predictions

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Figure 16

A summary of the liquid deposition comparison

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Figure 17

Total predicted and measured deposited mass

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Figure 18

Predicted deposition density at 15 s for case 1 (top) through case 7 (bottom) plotted on a logarithmic scale with black contours separating regions of fixed order of magnitude

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Figure 1

An illustration of typical computational time scales

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Figure 2

The high fidelity aluminum geometry

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Figure 3

The calculated void fraction for a given dimensionless separation distance for a regular hexahedral spaced system of uniform sphere voids




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