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Research Papers

Three-Dimensional Numerical Study on Freezing Phase Change Heat Transfer in Biological Tissue Embedded With Two Cryoprobes

[+] Author and Article Information
Fang Zhao

School of Energy and Environment, IIUSE,  Southeast University, Sipailou 2#, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096, P. R. China

Zhenqian Chen1

School of Energy and Environment, IIUSE,  Southeast University, Sipailou 2#, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096, P. R. Chinazqchen@seu.edu.cn

1

Corresponding author.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 3(3), 031007 (Aug 12, 2011) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004425 History: Received December 19, 2010; Revised June 07, 2011; Published August 12, 2011; Online August 12, 2011

Biological tissues undergo complex phase change heat transfer processes during cryosurgery, and a theoretical model is preferable to forecast this heat experience. A mathematical model for phase change heat transfer in cryosurgery was established. In this model, a fractal treelike branched network was used to describe the complicated geometrical frame of blood vessels. The temperature distribution and ice crystal growth process in biological tissue including normal tissue and tumor embedded with two cryoprobes were numerically simulated. The effects of cooling rate, initial temperature, and distance of two cryoprobes on freezing process of tissue were also studied. The results show that the ice crystal grows more rapidly in the initial freezing stage (<600 s) and then slows down in the following process, and the precooling of cryoprobes has no obvious effect on freezing rate of tissue. It also can be seen that the distance of 10 mm between two cryoprobes produces an optimal freezing effect for the tumor size (20 mm × 10 mm) in the present study compared with the distances of 6 mm and 14 mm. The numerical results are significant in providing technical reference for application of cryosurgery in clinical medicine.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic diagram of cryosurgery with two cryoprobes embedding in biological tissue

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Figure 2

Schematic diagram of fractal treelike structure of blood vessels (m = 4, N = 2)

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Figure 3

Ice ball growth at different freezing time: (a) 200 s and (b) 300 s

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Figure 4

The cross-sectional view of temperature distribution at freezing time of 800 s

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Figure 5

0 °C interface at different freezing time (x = 0.015 m)

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Figure 6

–40 °C isothermal surfaces at freezing time of 500 s with different cooling rates of cryoprobes (x = 0.015 m)

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Figure 7

–40 °C isothermal surfaces at freezing time of 500 s with different initial temperature of cyroprobes (x = 0.015 m)

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Figure 8

The cross-sectional view of temperature distribution at freezing time of 300 s with different distances of cryoprobes: (a) 6 mm; (b) 10 mm; and (c) 14 mm

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Figure 9

Variation of central tissue temperature versus freezing time with different distances of cryoprobes

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Figure 10

The cross-sectional view of temperature distribution at freezing time of 1000 s with different distances of cryoprobes: (a) 6 mm; (b) 10 mm; and (c) 14 mm

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