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Research Papers

Thermal Design Criteria for Extraordinary Performance of Devices Cooled by Microchannel Heat Sink

[+] Author and Article Information
Dylan Farnam

Department of Mechanical Engineering, IEEC, State University of New York at Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Vestal Parkway East, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000farnam@binghamton.edu

Bahgat Sammakia

Department of Mechanical Engineering, IEEC, State University of New York at Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Vestal Parkway East, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000

Kanad Ghose

Department of Computer Science, IEEC, State University of New York at Binghamton, P.O. Box 6000, Vestal Parkway East, Binghamton, NY 13902-6000

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 2(4), 041001 (Jan 06, 2011) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002841 History: Received February 09, 2010; Revised October 04, 2010; Published January 06, 2011; Online January 06, 2011

Increasing power dissipation in microprocessors and other devices is leading to the consideration of more capable thermal solutions than the traditional air-cooled fin heat sinks. Microchannel heat sinks (MHSs) are promising candidates for long-term thermal solution given their simplicity, performance, and the development of MHS-compatible 3D device architecture. As the traditional methods of cooling generally have uniform heat removal on the contact area with the device, thermal consequences of design have traditionally been considered only after the layout of components on a device is finalized in accordance with connection and other criteria. Unlike traditional cooling solutions, however, microchannel heat sinks provide highly nonuniform heat removal on the contact area with the device. This feature is of utmost importance and can actually be used quite advantageously, if considered during the design phase of a device. In this study, simple thermal design criteria governing the general placement of components on devices to be cooled by microchannel heat sink are developed and presented. These thermal criteria are not meant to supersede connection and other important design criteria but are intended as a necessary and valuable supplement. Full-scale numerical simulations of a device with a realistic power map cooled by microchannel heat sink prove the effectiveness of the criteria, showing large reduction in maximum operating temperature and harmful temperature gradients. The simulations further show that the device and microchannel heat sink can dissipate a comparatively high amount of power, with little thermal danger, when design considers the criteria developed herein.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Device with integrated microchannel heat sink and unit cell often considered in MHS models

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Figure 2

Axial Nuavg for water in a channel of w=100 μm, h=200 μm, and l=12 mm, and 12 mm, with constant q″ on channel walls, ΔPt=13.8 kPa

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Figure 4

60 microchannels, 61 separating fins, and a cap comprise the microchannel heat sink. Length of device and MHS in axial (+x) direction is 12mm. Note the location of Cartesian origin

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Figure 5

Hydrodynamic development of u at centerline of channel for various channel discretizations, fluid ΔPt=13.8 kPa. #CV=number of control volumes

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Figure 6

(a) Horizontal and (b) vertical fully developed velocity profiles, taken at x=6 mm, for analytical solution and numerical solution of various channel discretizations, fluid ΔPt=13.8 kPa. #CV=number of control volumes

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Figure 7

Nuavg for constant q″ on channel walls for analytical solution (fully developed value) and numerical solution (developing and fully developed values) of various channel discretizations, fluid ΔPt=13.8 kPa. #CV=number of control volumes

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Figure 8

Original power map and surface temperature (°C) contours of device cooled by integrated MHS. Red zones in power map dissipate majority of power, 52.5 W of the total 76 W. Tmax=69°C

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Figure 9

Power map and surface temperature (°C) contours of device subject to thermal design criteria; zones (1,0), (1,1), (1,2), and (2,2) are switched with zones (0,0), (0,1), (0,2), and (0,3), respectively, Tmax=57°C

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Figure 10

Power map and surface temperature (°C) contours of device limited to Tmax=85°C and minimal temperature gradients. 271 W is dissipated.

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Figure 3

Surface temperature (°C) contours of microprocessor, quadrants 1 and 4 dormant, quadrants 2 and 3 active with power density of 3.47×109 W/m3, ΔPt=13.8 kPa for water flow in microchannel heat sink. Device footprint is 12×12 mm2, with thickness of 200 μm. Figure adapted from Ref. 3

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