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Research Papers

Energy Efficiency of Refrigeration Systems for High-Heat-Flux Microelectronics

[+] Author and Article Information
P. E. Phelan1

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZphelan@asu.edu

Y. Gupta

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

H. Tyagi2

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

R. S. Prasher3

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

J. Catano, R. Zhou, M. Jensen, Y. Peles

Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic University, Troy, NY

G. Michna4

Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic University, Troy, NY

J. Wen5

Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic University, Troy, NY

1

Corresponding author.

2

Present address: School of Mechanical Materials & Energy Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, 140001, Punjab, India.

3

Also at ARPA-E, Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20585.

4

Present address: South Dakota State University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Crothers Engineering Hall 254, Box 2219, Brookings, SD 57007–0294.

5

Also at Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic University.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 2(3), 031004 (Dec 16, 2010) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4003041 History: Received September 11, 2009; Revised November 06, 2010; Published December 16, 2010; Online December 16, 2010

Increasingly, military and civilian applications of electronics require extremely high-heat fluxes on the order of 1000W/cm2. Thermal management solutions for these severe operating conditions are subject to a number of constraints, including energy consumption, controllability, and the volume or size of the package. Calculations indicate that the only possible approach to meeting this heat flux condition, while maintaining the chip temperature below 65°C, is to utilize refrigeration. Here, we report an initial thermodynamic optimization of the refrigeration system design. In order to hold the outlet quality of the fluid leaving the evaporator to less than approximately 20%, in order to avoid reaching critical heat flux, the refrigeration system design is dramatically different from typical configurations for household applications. In short, a simple vapor-compression cycle will require excessive energy consumption, largely because of the additional heat required to return the refrigerant to its vapor state before the compressor inlet. A better design is determined to be a “two-loop” cycle, in which the vapor-compression loop is coupled thermally to a pumped loop that directly cools the high-heat-flux chip.

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Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic diagram of a conventional vapor-compression refrigeration system (cycle 1), with a second vapor-compression cycle cascaded to produce subcooled conditions at the evaporator inlet

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Figure 2

T-s (temperature-entropy) diagram for cycle 1 (conventional vapor-compression cycle cascaded with a second vapor-compression cycle)

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Figure 3

Schematic diagram of a vapor-compression refrigeration system with economizer (cycle 2)

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Figure 4

T-s (temperature-entropy) diagram for cycle 2 (conventional vapor-compression cycle with an economizer heat exchanger)

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Figure 5

Schematic diagram of a pumped-loop system cooled by a thermoelectric cooler (cycle 3)

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Figure 6

T-s (temperature-entropy) diagram for cycle 3 (pumped loop with thermoelectric cooler)

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Figure 7

Schematic diagram of a two-loop system (cycle 4)

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Figure 8

T-s (temperature-entropy) diagram for cycle 4 (two-loop system)

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Figure 9

Comparison of the single-loop (case 1) and two-loop (case 4) configurations based on COP for two different evaporator temperatures (Tcond=40°C)

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