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Research Papers

Flow and Thermal Investigation of a Groove-Enhanced Minichannel Application

[+] Author and Article Information
Stephen A. Solovitz1

School of Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University Vancouver, Vancouver, WA 98686stevesol@vancouver.wsu.edu

Thomas E. Conder

 University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID 83402; School of Engineering and Computer Science, Washington State University Vancouver, Vancouver, WA 98686thomas.conder@inl.gov

1

Corresponding author.

J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl 2(1), 011008 (Sep 23, 2010) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4002411 History: Received February 23, 2010; Revised August 17, 2010; Published September 23, 2010; Online September 23, 2010

A grooved surface feature is considered as a potential thermal enhancement for electronics cooling with single-phase flow in minichannels. A power electronics module was initially designed using applied computational fluid dynamics (CFD) using a minichannel featuring a series of two-dimensional grooves. To validate these simulations, micro–particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to examine the flow field at a turbulent Reynolds number of 5000. The velocity distribution was compared directly to CFD simulations of the same geometry. The flow structures matched quantitatively near the groove leading edge and on its windward side, but the flow speeds were significantly underpredicted on the leeward side, deviating by as much as 30% of the freestream speed. This discrepancy was attributable to the selection of the turbulence model in the simulations, which was determined using the micro-PIV results. Using a validated CFD model, simulations predict thermal enhancements on the order of 35%.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of (a) a dimple and (b) a groove

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Figure 2

(a) Fabricated base of experimental test module. (b) Top schematic view of grooved minichannel with inset of feature geometry.

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Figure 3

Schematic of the two-dimensional groove model used for CFD simulations of a deep separating groove at d/D=0.49 and ReDh=5000

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Figure 8

(a) Ensemble-averaged PIV velocity vector field near the groove trailing edge. The reference vector depicts the magnitude of the mean channel velocity, Um. (b) Comparison of PIV and CFD streamwise velocity profiles at x/D=0.75.

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Figure 9

(a) Ensemble-averaged PIV velocity vector field at the groove trailing edge. The reference vector depicts the magnitude of the mean channel velocity, Um. (b) Comparison of PIV and CFD streamwise velocity profiles at x/D=0.95.

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Figure 10

(a) Schematic of the full, three-dimensional CFD model of experimental test module and (b) velocity vectors (m/s) at minichannel centerline for ReDh=5000

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Figure 11

Comparison of streamwise velocity profiles at midgroove location for CFD simulations of the full 3D module, examining (a) various depths for groove 4 and (b) flow development for different grooves

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Figure 12

CFD simulations of velocity vectors (m/s) in the flow past a deep separating groove feature at d/D=0.49 and ReDh=5000, calculated using the realizable k-ε turbulence model. The vector density has been reduced by a factor of 1/40 for clarity.

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Figure 13

Comparison of PIV and CFD streamwise velocity profiles at x/D=0.5, including results from the realizable k-ε and SST k-ω models

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Figure 14

Thermal response of deeply grooved channel flow with d/D=0.49 at ReDh=5000 in terms of Nusselt number

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Figure 15

Thermal and flow response of grooved channel flow for various groove depth-to-width ratios, d/D, at ReDh=5000 in terms of (a) Nusselt number relative to baseline and (b) pressure coefficient relative to baseline

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Figure 4

CFD simulations (13) of velocity vectors (m/s) in the flow past a deep separating groove feature at d/D=0.49 and ReDh=5000. The vector density has been reduced by a factor of 1/40 for clarity. Five test locations are denoted around the groove feature, each of which is examined using micro-PIV.

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Figure 5

(a) Ensemble-averaged PIV velocity vector field at the groove leading edge. The reference vector depicts the magnitude of the mean channel velocity, Um. (b) Comparison of PIV and CFD streamwise velocity profiles at x/D=0.1.

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Figure 6

(a) Ensemble-averaged PIV velocity vector field near the groove leading edge. The reference vector depicts the magnitude of the mean channel velocity, Um. (b) Comparison of PIV and CFD transverse velocity profiles at y/D=−0.25.

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Figure 7

(a) Ensemble-averaged PIV velocity vector field at the middle of the groove. The reference vector depicts the magnitude of the mean channel velocity, Um. (b) Comparison of PIV and CFD streamwise velocity profiles at x/D=0.5.

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