Accepted Manuscripts

Hossein Mohamad Ghasemi, Neda Gilani and Jafar Towfighi Daryan
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036801
A new arrangement of side-wall burners of an industrial furnace was studied by three dimensional-CFD simulation. This simulation was conducted on ten calculation domain. Finite rate/eddy dissipation model was used as a combustion model. Discrete Ordinate Model was considered as radiation model. Furthermore, weighted sum of gray gas model was used to calculate radiative gas properties. Tube skin temperature and heat flux profiles were obtained by solving mass, momentum and energy equations. Moreover, fuel rate variation was considered as an effective parameter. A base flow rate of fuel (m ?=0.0695 kg/s) was assigned and different ratios (0.25m ?, 0.5m ?, 2m ?, 4m ?) were assigned to investigate heat distribution over the furnace. Resulted temperature and heat profiles were obtained in non-uniform mode by proposed wall burner arrangement. According to the results, despite increased heat transfer coefficient about 34% for m ? to 4m ?, temperature profile for this rate is too high and is harmful for tube metallurgy. Also proper range for fuel rate variation was determined 0.5m ? to 2m ?. In this range, heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number for m ? to 2m ? were increased by 21% and for m ? to 0.25m ? were decreased about 28%.
TOPICS: Fuels, Cracking (Materials), Computational fluid dynamics, Fracture (Process), Furnaces, Simulation, Heat transfer coefficients, Heat, Temperature, Combustion, Metallurgy, Radiation (Physics), Eddies (Fluid dynamics), Momentum, Flow (Dynamics), Industrial furnaces, Energy dissipation, Skin, Temperature profiles, Heat flux
Mohsen Torabi, Alexander Elliott and N.K. Karimi
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036802
This paper presents a study of the thermal characteristics and entropy generation of a porous microchannel with thick walls featuring uneven thicknesses. The system accommodates a fully developed flow while the solid and fluid phases can include internal heat sources. Two sets of asymmetric boundary conditions are considered. The first includes constant temperatures at the surface of the outer walls, with the lower wall experiencing a higher temperature than the upper wall. The second case imposes a constant heat flux on the lower wall and a convection boundary condition on the upper wall. These set thermal models for micro-reactors featuring highly exothermic or endothermic reactions such as those encountered in fuel reforming processes. The porous system is considered to be under local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) condition. Analytical solutions are, primarily, developed for the temperature and local entropy fields and then are extended to the total entropy generation within the system. A parametric study is, subsequently, conducted. It is shown that the ratio of the solid to fluid effective thermal conductivity ratio and the internal heat sources are the most influential parameters in the thermal and entropic behaviours of the system. In particular, the results demonstrate that the internal heat sources can affect the entropy generation in a non-monotonic way and, that the variation of the total entropy with internal heat sources may include extremum points. It is, further, shown that the asymmetric nature of the problem has a pronounced effect on the local generation of entropy.
TOPICS: Thermodynamics, Microchannels, Entropy, Heat, Temperature, Fluids, Boundary-value problems, Flow (Dynamics), Heat flux, Fuels, Exterior walls, Equilibrium (Physics), Thermal conductivity, Convection
Dharmendra Tripathi, Ashish Sharma, O. Anwar Beg and Abhishek Kumar Tiwari
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036803
A mathematical model is developed to investigate the combined viscous electro-osmotic flow and heat transfer in a finite length micro-channel with peristaltic wavy walls. The influence of Joule heating is included. The unsteady two-dimensional conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy conservation with viscous dissipation, heat absorption and electro-kinetic body force, are formulated in an ( ) co-ordinate system. The Joule heating term appears as a quadratic function of axial electrical field in the energy conservation equation. The momentum and energy equations are coupled via the thermal buoyancy term. The peristaltic waves propagating along the micro-channel walls are simulated via a time-dependent co-sinusoidal wave function for the transverse vibration of the walls. Both single and train wave propagation are considered. Constant thermo-physical properties are prescribed and a Newtonian (Navier-Stokes) viscous model employed for the fluid. The transport equations are transformed from the wave frame to the laboratory frame and the electrical field terms rendered into electrical potential terms via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, Debye length approximation and ionic Nernst Planck equation. The dimensionless emerging linearized electro-thermal boundary value problem is solved using integral methods. A parametric study is conducted to evaluate the impact of isothermal Joule heating term on axial velocity, temperature distribution, pressure difference, volumetric flow rate, skin friction (wall shear stress function) and Nusselt number (wall heat transfer rate). The modification in streamline distributions with Joule heating and electro-osmotic velocity is also addressed to elucidate trapping bolus dynamics.
TOPICS: Dynamics (Mechanics), Pressure, Momentum, Flow (Dynamics), Buoyancy, Heat, Heat transfer, Electric fields, Electric potential, Wave propagation, Fluids, Absorption, Joules, Waves, Electrokinetics, Energy dissipation, Skin friction (Fluid dynamics), Wave functions, Electroosmosis, Energy conservation, Vibration, Approximation, Boundary-value problems, Peristaltic flow, Temperature distribution, Trains, Heating, Microchannels, Shear stress
Rajesh Nimmagadda and Venkatasubbaiah Kondapalli
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036804
The present numerical study has been carried out by developing two phase mixture model with conjugate heat transfer. Pure and hybrid nanofluids (HyNF) with particle as well as base fluid hybridization are used in analyzing the performance of micro-channel under forced convection laminar flow. The flow as well as heat transfer characteristics of pure water, copper (Cu), Aluminum (Al), single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and hybrid (Cu+Al, water+methanol) nanofluids with various nanoparticle volume concentrations at different Reynolds numbers are reported. Pure nanofluids such as Al, Cu and SWCNT with 3 vol.\% nanoparticle concentration enhanced the average Nusselt number by 21.09\%, 32.46\% and 71.25\% in comparison with pure water at Re = 600. Where as, in the case of hybrid nanofluids such as 3 vol.\% HyNF (0.6\% Cu + 2.4\% Al) and 3 vol.\% SWCNT (20\% Me + 80\% PW), the enhancement in average Nusselt number is observed to be 23.38\% and 46.43\% in comparison with pure water at Re = 600. The study presents three equivalent combinations of nanofluids [1 vol.\% Cu and 0.5 vol.\% SWCNT], [2 vol.\% Cu, 1 vol.\% SWCNT and 3 vol.\% HyNF (0.6\% Cu + 2.4\% Al)] as well as [2 vol.\% SWCNT and 3 vol.\% SWCNT (20\% Me + 80\% PW)]. The study also shows that by dispersing SWCNT nanoparticles one can enhance heat transfer characteristics of base fluid containing methanol as antifreeze. The developed numerical model is validated with the numerical and experimental results available in literature.
TOPICS: Heat transfer, Nanofluids, Single-walled carbon nanotubes, Microchannels, Water, Nanoparticles, Fluids, Copper, Aluminum, Particulate matter, Computer simulation, Laminar flow, Reynolds number, Forced convection, Flow (Dynamics), Methanol
Wang Lingling, Zhu Guihua, Wei Yu, Dahai Zhu, Yingchun Zhang, Liye Zhang and Huaqing Xie
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036800
Near-spherical gold nanoparticles were synthesized using a facile chemical reduction method. The optical properties, size and morphology of nanofluids were characterized using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and TEM. All the gold nanofluids showed better photothermal conversion characteristics than H2O due to the strong localized surface plasmon resonance effect. The increase in gold nanoparticles diameters resulted in lower photothermal conversion properties, so appropriate reducing agents have great influence on the optical properties of gold nanofluids in our experimental system. Trisodium citrate is the optimum reducing agents compared with NaBH4 and ascorbic acid.
TOPICS: Surface plasmon resonance, Nanofluids, Nanoparticles, Water, Ultraviolet radiation, Spectroscopy
Hussein M. Maghrabie, M. Attalla, Hany Fawaz and Mohamed Khalil
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036788
Numerical study of the effect of jet position on cooling process of an array of heated obstacles simulating electronic components has been investigated based on Realizable k-e model. Jet positions have been changed to impinge each row of obstacles consecutively. The experiments have been achieved at three different values of jet-to-channel Reynolds number ratios, Rej/Rec=1, 2, and 4. In the present study, a comparison between two different cooling processes; cross flow only (CF) and jet impingement with cross flow (JICF) has been achieved. The flow structure, heat transfer characteristics over all array obstacles, and the pumping power have been investigated for different jet positions. The results show that the jet position affects significantly the flow structure, as well as the heat transfer characteristics. Ac-cording to the results of average heat transfer coefficient and the pumping power, the more effective jet position for all values of jet-to-channel Reynolds number ratios (1, 2, and 4) is achieved when the jets impinge the third row of obstacles (JP3).
TOPICS: Cooling, Reynolds number, Flow (Dynamics), Heat transfer, Cross-flow, Jets, Electronic components, Heat transfer coefficients
Zhaoxiang Zhang, Huiqing Liu, Xiaohu Dong and Huanli Jiang
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036789
Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process has been an optimized method to explore heavy oil reservoirs in the world. The oil viscosity reduction and gravity force near the interface of steam chamber are the main development mechanisms. In classical models, conductive heat transfer plays the only or dominant role in the heat transmission from high-temperature steam to low-temperature oil sands. Although some mathematical studies have paid attention to the convective heat transfer, the role of heat transfer by flowable oil normal to the steam chamber interface has been given little attention. In SAGD, the viscosity of bitumen can be reduced by several orders of magnitude by the release of latent heat from injected steam. In this study, an analytical model is developed for the heat transfer process induced by flowable oil. Also, in order to accurately simulate the oil viscosity characteristics in steam chamber, a correlation between oil viscosity and pressure is proposed. Results indicate that the oil mobility plays an important role on the flow normal to interface when the distance is smaller than 6 m. Even under the most extreme circumstances (µw = 0.1127 cp), the flowing of oil normal to steam chamber interface also cannot be ignored. Comparing to Irani and Ghannadi model, it can be easy to draw the conclusion that new model consists with the UTF field data much better. This new analytical model will benefit to understanding the convective heat transfer mechanism in SAGD process.
TOPICS: Gravity (Force), Drainage, Convection, Steam, Heat transfer, Viscosity, Asphalt, Oil sands, Pitch (Bituminous material), Pressure, Flow (Dynamics), High temperature steam, Hydrocarbon reservoirs, Mechanical admittance, Low temperature, Latent heat, Bituminous materials
Alok Ghanekar, Mingdi Sun, Zongqin Zhang and Yi Zheng
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036790
We theoretically and numerically demonstrate optimal design of wavelength selective thermal emitter using one dimensional (1-D) and two dimensional (2-D) metal-dielectric gratings for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. Proposed design consists of tungsten (W) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) gratings which can withstand high temperatures. Radiative properties of 1-D grating were calculated using a numerical method, while effective medium approximation was used for 2-D gratings. Optimal designs were obtained such that output power is maximum for GaSb photovoltaic cell at emitter temperature of 1500 K and radiated energy for longer wavelengths is limited to a low value. A constrained optimization was performed using Genetic Algorithm (GA) to arrive at optimal design.
TOPICS: Design, Wavelength, Diffraction gratings, Temperature, Metals, Numerical analysis, Optimization, Approximation, Genetic algorithms, Photovoltaic cells, Quartz, Silicon, Tungsten, High temperature
Hao-Chun Zhang, Yan-Qiang Wei, Cheng-Shuai Su, Gong-Nan Xie and Giulio Lorenzini
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036791
With the rapid development of the supersonic aircraft technology, the aircraft Mach number continues increasing, but on the other hand, the working condition becomes progressively poor. The photonic crystals (PCs) material could reflect the energy of the thermal radiation effectively and prevent heat transferring into the substrate due to its low thermal conductivity. Consequently, the PCs material could be applied to thermal protection for the supersonic aircraft. In this paper, the aircraft state of Mach 5 is set as the target operating condition, and the PC thermal protection ability is simulated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Based on the theory of the electromagnetics, the characteristics of the photonic band gaps for three dimensional PCs are calculated and the effects of PCs medium radius, refractive index and lattice constant are fully taken into account. For the three-dimensional diamond PCs structure, two major categories and totally five optimized design schemes are proposed, through combining the condition of supersonic aircraft aerodynamic heating. Results show that the temperature is reduced by 948.431K when the heat passes through thermal protection layer and reduced by 930.4K when the heat passes through PC layer. By the method of “Coupled Optimization Strategy (COS)”, the energy density which enters into substrate material would decrease by 7.99%. In conclusion, the thermal protection capacity for supersonic aircraft could be effectively improved by using the PCs.
TOPICS: Structural optimization, Aircraft, Crystals, Dynamic light scattering, Heat, Temperature, Electromagnetism, Density, Mach number, Thermal radiation, Electromagnetic force, Thermal conductivity, Computational fluid dynamics, Design, Optimization, Refractive index, Diamonds, Energy gap, Heating
Jiabin Fang, Nan Tu, Jinjia Wei, Tao Fang and Xuancheng Du
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036792
The effects of tube layout on the heat losses of solar cavity receiver were numerically investigated. Two typical tube layouts were analyzed. For the first tube layout, only the active surfaces of cavity were covered with tubes. For the second tube layout, both the active cavity walls and the passive cavity walls were covered with tubes. Besides, the effects of water-steam circulation mode on the heat losses were further studied for the second tube layout. The absorber tubes on passive surfaces were considered as the boiling section for one water-steam circulation mode, and as the preheating section for the other one, respectively. The thermal performance of the cavity receiver with each tube layout was evaluated according to the previous calculation model. The results show that the passive surfaces appear to have much lower heat flux than the active ones. However, the temperature of those surfaces can reach a quite high value of about 520 ? in the first tube layout, which causes a large amount of radiative and convective heat losses. By contrast, the temperature of passive surfaces decreases by about 200-300? in the second tube layout, which leads to a 38.2-70.3% drop in convective heat loss and a 67.7-87.7% drop in radiative heat loss of the passive surfaces. The thermal efficiency of the receiver can be raised from 82.9% to 87.7% in the present work.
TOPICS: Solar energy, Cavities, Heat losses, Steam, Water, Temperature, Cavity walls, Boiling, Heat flux, Thermal efficiency
Ayoub Gounni and Mustapha El Alami
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036794
In order to really assess the thermal performance of a wall incorporating Phase Change Material (PCM), a reduced scale cavity has been monitored during two heating cycles. For each cycle, the heat source inside the test cell is switched "on" for 5 hours and its setpoint is 38°C then switched off for 4 hours. The outdoor air temperature is kept constant at a low temperature of 20°C. Two walls are equipped with a PCM layer at different depths in order to study the optimal PCM location. The other walls are wooden and glass to model a real building. The comparison between the four walls is made based on the absorbed heat fluxes and outside surface temperatures. The results show that the location of the PCM close to the heat source reaches its melting temperature and then reduces the surface temperatures. At this location, the PCM layer stores the major part of the inlet heat flux. It takes 10 hours to release the absorbed heat flux. However, the PCM layer, practically, does not have effect on the surface temperatures and absorbed heat fluxes, when it is placed far from the heat source.
TOPICS: Heat transfer, Cavities, Heat, Temperature, Flux (Metallurgy), Cycles, Heat flux, Heating, Melting, Phase change materials, Low temperature, Glass
Vikrant Khullar, Vishal Bhalla and Himanshu Tyagi
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036795
Nano-particle dispersions or more popularly 'nanofluids' have been extensively researched for their candidature as working fluid in direct-volumetric-absorption solar thermal systems. Flexibility in carving out desired thermo-physical and optical properties has lend the nanofluids to be engineered for solar thermal and photovoltaic applications. The key feature which delineates nanofluid based direct absorption volumetric systems from their surface absorption counterparts is that here the working fluid actively (directly) interacts with the solar irradiation and hence enhances the overall heat transfer of the system. In the present work, a host of nanoparticle materials have been evaluated for their solar weighted absorptivity and heat transfer enhancements relative to the basefluid. It has been found that solar weighted absorptivity is the key feature that makes nanoparticle dispersions suitable for solar thermal applications (maximum enhancement being for the case of amorphous carbon nanoparticles) . Furthermore, thermal conductivity enhancements reveal that an enhancement on the order of 1-5% could only be achieved through addition of nanoparticles into the basefluid. Finally, as a proof of concept experiment, a parabolic trough collector employing the amorphous carbon based nanofluid and distilled water has been tested under the sun. These experiments have been carried out at no flow condition so that appreciable temperatures could be reached in less time. It was found that for the same exposure time, increase in the temperature of amorphous carbon based nanofluid is approximately 3 times higher as compared to that in the case of distilled water.
TOPICS: Heat transfer, Fluids, Absorption, Solar energy, Thermal systems, Nanofluids, Nanoparticles, Carbon, Water, Disperse systems, Temperature, Flow (Dynamics), Thermal conductivity, Irradiation (Radiation exposure), Parabolic troughs
Dahai Zhu, Yu Qi, Wei Yu, Lifei Chen, Mingzhu Wang and Huaqing Xie
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036796
Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) have excellent thermal conductivity. It can significantly improve the heat-conducting property of epoxy resin (EP) matrix. In this paper, the GNPs/EP composites were successfully prepared by using ultrasonication and the cast molding method. The prepared GNPs/EP composites were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal conductivity analyzer. Some factors affecting the thermal transfer performance of the composites were discussed. The defoamation has great influence on the thermal conductivity of composite. There is a nearly linear relationship between the mass fraction and the thermal conductivity of composite when the mass fraction of GNPs is below 4.3%. The results show that when the mass fraction of GNPs is 4.3% with crushing time of 2s, the thermal conductivity of GNPs/EP composite is up to 0.99 W/m?K. The thermal conductivity is increased by 9.0% compared with that without pulverization treatment. When it is ground three times, the thermal conductivity of composite reaches the maximum (1.06W/m?K) and it is increased by 307.7% compared with that of epoxy resin matrix.
TOPICS: Composite materials, Epoxy resins, Thermal conductivity, Graphene, Heat, Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Molding
Yingchun Zhang, Wei Yu, Liye Zhang, Junshan Yin, Jingkang Wang and Huaqing Xie
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036797
A simple approach is developed to obtain a multiscale network of heat conducting by filling spherical alumina (S-Al2O3) and graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) into silicon rubber. This unique structure effectively minimizes the thermal contact resistance between fillers and interface. The physical properties of the composites are characterized by thermal conductivity, density and tensile strength. A high thermal conductivity of 3.37Wm-1K-1 has been achieved, which is 47.1% higher than the single filler at the same loading. A strong and obvious synergistic effect has been observed as S-Al2O3 and GnPs filled into silicon rubber matrix. It is interesting that the composites with GnPs have the lower density (2.62g/cm3, reduced by 6%) and the superior tensile performance, compared to silicone rubber composite with neat S-Al2O3. The composites have the potential applications in heat dissipation of light-emitting diode.
TOPICS: Density, Mechanical properties, Thermal conductivity, Graphene, Silicone rubber, Composite materials, Rubber, Fillers (Materials), Heat, Silicon, Tensile strength, Light-emitting diodes, Contact resistance, Energy dissipation
Hua Dong, Ranran Chen, Yongqiang Mu, Shouting Liu, Jingkui Zhang and Huan Lin
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036798
The thermal transport in metallic thin films can be reduced by the electron scattering and there are very little available knowledge can be used to explain the mechanism. In this work, we characterized the thermal and electron transport of 3.2 nm thin gold films coated on alginate fiber by the transient electro-thermal (TET) technique. The results reveal that the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity are reduced significantly from the respective values of bulk material by 75.9% and 93%. At the same time, the Lorenz number is calculated as 8.64 ×10-8 W O K-2 and it is three times increased from that value of bulk material. The intrinsic thermal diffusivity of alginate fiber is 3.25×10-7 m2 s-1 and the thermal conductivity is 0.51 W m-1 K-1.
TOPICS: Fibers, Electrical properties, Thermal conductivity, Bulk solids, Thermal diffusivity, Transients (Dynamics), Electron scattering, Electrical conductivity, Electron transport, Metallic thin films
Han Shen, Xueting Liu, Hongbin Yan, Gongnan Xie and Bengt Sunden
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036767
Internal Y-shaped bifurcation has been proved to be an advantageous way on improving thermal performance of microchannel heat sinks according to the previous research. Metal foams are known due to their predominate performance such as low-density, large surface area and high thermal conductivity. In this paper, different parameters of metal foams in Y-shaped bifurcation microchannel heat sinks are designed and investigated numerically. The effects of Reynolds number, porosity of metal foam, and the pore density (PPI) of the metal foam on the microchannel heat sinks are analyzed in detail. It is found that the internal Y-shaped bifurcation microchannel heat sinks with metal foam exhibit better heat transfer enhancement and overall thermal performance. This research provides broad application prospects for heat sinks with metal foam in the thermal management of high power density electronic devices.
TOPICS: Bifurcation, Heat sinks, Metal foams, Microchannels, Density, Heat transfer, Reynolds number, Thermal conductivity, Porosity, Thermal management, Power density
Tasawar Hayat, Muhammad Ijaz Khan, Maria Imtiaz and Ahmed Alsaedi
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036768
A simple model of homogeneous-heterogeneous process for Maxwell fluid flow in the stagnation region over a stretched surface is constructed. It is assumed that the homogeneous process in the ambient fluid are governing by first order kinetics and the heterogeneous process on the wall surface are given by isothermal cubic autocatalator kinetics. Flow is caused by stretched surface with homogeneous-heterogeneous process. Present problem is reduced to ordinary differential equations through appropriate transformation. Resulting problems are solved for the convergent solutions. Intervals of convergence for the obtained series solutions are explicitly determined. Behavior of important variables on the physical quantities of interest are analyzed in detail. It is observed that velocity profile decreases for larger values of Deborah number.
TOPICS: Heat, Mass transfer, Fluids, Chemical reactions, Fluid dynamics, Flow (Dynamics), Differential equations
Sudip Shyam, Aparesh Datta and Ajoy Kumar Das
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4036769
In this study, heat transfer and fluid flow of deionized water in two dimensional parallel plates micro channel with and without micro mixers have been investigated for various Reynolds number. The effect of heat transfer and fluid flow on height ,diameter of micro mixer and also distance between the two micromixers are carried out in the study. Results showed that the diameter of the micromixer does not have much effect on heat transfer with a maximum enhancement of 9.5% among the different diameter. Whereas; heat transfer gets enhanced by 85.57% when the height of the micro mixer is increased from 100µm to 400µm and also heat transfer gets improved by 11.45% when sb2 is increased from 4L to 5L. The separation and reattachment zone at the entry and exit of the micromixer cause the increase in heat transfer with the penalty of pressure drop. It is also found that increase of Reynolds number increases the intensity of the secondary flows leads to rapid increase in heat transfer and pressure drop. Finally, the optimized structure of micromixer is found out based on maximum heat transfer and minimum pressure drop.
TOPICS: Fluid dynamics, Flow (Dynamics), Heat transfer, Numerical analysis, Plates (structures), Pressure drop, Reynolds number, Water, Microchannels, Separation (Technology)
Mohsen Ali Mandegari, Somayeh Farzad and Hassan Pahlavanzadeh
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4032332
TOPICS: Exergy, Optimization, Wheels

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