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research-article  
Corey Kruse, Mike Lucis, Jeff Shield, Troy Anderson, Craig Zuhlke, Dennis Alexander, Professor George Gogos and Sidy Ndao
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038763
An experimental investigation of the effects of layers of nanoparticles formed during Femtosecond Laser Surface Processing (FLSP) on pool boiling heat transfer performance has been conducted. Five different stainless steel 304 samples with slightly different surface features were fabricated through FLSP and pool boiling heat transfer experiments were carried out to study the heat transfer characteristics of each surface. The experiments showed that the layer(s) of nanoparticles developed during the FLSP processes, which overlay FLSP self-organized microstructures, can either improve or degrade boiling heat transfer coefficients depending on the overall thickness of the layer(s). This nanoparticle layer thickness is an indirect result of the type of microstructure created. The heat transfer coefficients were found to decrease with increasing nanoparticle layer thickness. This trend has been attributed to added thermal resistance. Using a Focused Ion Beam (FIB)milling process and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), the physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticle layers were characterized and used to explain the observed heat transfer results. Results suggest that there is an optimal nanoparticle layer thickness and material composition such that both the heat transfer coefficients and critical heat flux are enhanced.
TOPICS: Nanoparticles, Pool boiling, Heat transfer, Lasers, Heat transfer coefficients, Critical heat flux, Overlays (Materials engineering), Stainless steel, Thermal resistance, Transmission electron microscopy, Focused ion beams, Chemical properties, Boiling, Milling
research-article  
Venkata Rao and Ankit Saroj
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038737
This paper explores the use of a self-adaptive multi-population elitist (SAMPE) Jaya algorithm for the economic optimization of shell-and-tube heat exchanger (STHE) design. Three different optimization problems of STHE are considered in this work. The same problems were earlier attempted by other researchers using genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, bio-geography based optimization (BBO), imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA), artificial bee colony (ABC), cuckoo-search algorithm (CSA), intelligence tuned harmony search (ITHS) and cohort intelligence (CI) algorithm. The Jaya algorithm is a newly developed algorithm and it does not have any algorithmic-specific parameters to be tuned except the common control parameters of number of iterations and population size. The search mechanism of the Jaya algorithm is upgraded in this paper by using the multi-population search scheme with the elitism. The SAMPE-Jaya algorithm is proposed in this paper to optimize the setup cost and operational cost of STHEs simultaneously. The performance of the proposed SAPME-Jaya algorithm is tested on four well known constrained, ten unconstrained standard benchmark problems and three STHE design optimization problems. The results of computational experiments proved the superiority of the proposed method over the latest reported methods used for the optimization of the same problems.
TOPICS: Algorithms, Heat exchangers, Optimization, Shells, Particle swarm optimization, Design, Genetic algorithms
research-article  
Fatih Selimefendigil and Hakan F. Oztop
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038738
In this study, laminar forced convective nanofluid flow over a backward facing step was numerically investigated. The bottom wall downstream of the step was flexible and finite element method was used to solve the governing equations. Simulations were performed for a range of Reynolds number, elastic modulus and solid particle volume fraction . It was observed that the flexibility of the bottom wall results in the variation of the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics. As the value of Reynolds number and solid particle volume fraction enhances, local and average heat transfer rate increases. At the highest value of Reynolds number, heat transfer rate is higher for the case with the wall with having lowest value of elastic modulus whereas the situation is reversed for other value of Reynolds number. Average Nusselt number reduces by about 9.21% and increases by about 6.1% for the flexible wall with the lowest elastic modulus as compared to a rigid bottom wall for Reynolds number of 25 and 250. Adding nano-additives to the base fluid results in higher heat transfer enhancements. Average heat transfer rates enhance by about 35.72% and 35.32% at the highest solid particle volume fraction as compared to nanofluid with solid volume fraction of 0.01 for the case with wall at the lowest and highest elastic modulus. A polynomial type correlation for the average Nusselt number along the flexible hot wall was proposed which is dependent on the elastic modulus and solid particle volume fraction.
TOPICS: Flow (Dynamics), Nanofluids, Elastic moduli, Heat transfer, Reynolds number, Particulate matter, Fluid dynamics, Fluids, Simulation, Finite element methods, Engineering simulation, Polynomials
Technical Brief  
Muhammad Qasim and Idrees Afridi
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038703
Analysis of heat transfer and entropy generation in mixed convection flow over a vertically stretching sheet has been carried out in the presence of variable thermal conductivity and energy dissipation. Governing equations are reduced to self-similar ordinary differential equations via similarity transformations and are solved numerically by applying shooting and fourth order Runge-Kutta techniques. The expressions for entropy generation number and Bejan number are also obtained by using similarity transformations. The influence of embedding physical parameters on quantities of interest is discussed through graphical illustrations. The results reveal that entropy generation number increases significantly in the vicinity of stretching surface and gradually dies out as one moves away from the sheet. Also the entropy generation number decreases with an increase in temperature difference parameter. Moreover, entropy generation number enhances with an enhancement in the Eckert number, Prandtl number and variable thermal conductivity parameter.
TOPICS: Entropy, Energy dissipation, Thermal conductivity, Flow (Dynamics), Mixed convection, Prandtl number, Temperature, Heat transfer, Differential equations
research-article  
Tasawar Hayat, Mumtaz Khan, Taseer Muhammad and Ahmed Alsaedi
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038700
The present article examines magnetohydrodynamic three dimensional flow of viscous nanoliquid in presence of heat and mass flux conditions. A bidirectional non-linearly stretching surface has been employed to create the flow. Heat and mass transfer attribute analyzed via thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion aspects. Viscous liquid is electrically conducted subject to applied magnetic field. Problem formulation is made through the boundary layer approximation under small magnetic Reynolds number. Appropriate transformations yield the strong nonlinear ordinary differential system. The obtained nonlinear system has been solved for the convergent homotopic solutions. Effects of different pertinent parameters with respect to temperature and concentration are sketched and discussed. The coefficients of skin-friction and heat and mass transfer rates are computed numerically.
TOPICS: Flow (Dynamics), Heat, Boundary-value problems, Nanofluids, Mass transfer, Magnetic fields, Skin friction (Fluid dynamics), Boundary layers, Nonlinear systems, Approximation, Temperature, Diffusion (Physics), Magnetohydrodynamics, Magnetic Reynolds number
research-article  
Ravi Babu Sajja and Sambasiva rao G
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038701
Buoyancy-induced natural convective heat transfer along a vertical cylinder immersed in Water- Al2O3 nanofluids for various concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 Vol %) under constant heat flux condition is investigated experimentally and presented. Thermal stratification was observed outside the boundary layer in the ambient fluid after steady state condition is achieved as the fluid temperature goes on increasing along the axial direction. Temperature variations of the cylinder along the axial direction, temperature variations of fluid in both axial and radial direction are shown graphically. It is observed that the temperatures of the cylinder and the fluid increases along the axial direction and the fluid temperature decreases in the radial direction. Experiments were conducted for different heat inputs (30W, 40W, 45W and 50W) and different volume concentrations and observed that the addition of alumina nanoparticles up to 0.1 vol % enhances the thermal performance and then the further addition of nanoparticles leads to deterioration. The maximum enhancement in the natural convection heat transfer performance is observed as 18%.
TOPICS: Buoyancy, Convection, Cylinders, Nanofluids, Water, Fluids, Temperature, Nanoparticles, Boundary layers, Natural convection, Heat transfer, Heat, Thermal stratification, Heat flux, Steady state
research-article  
Yi Han, Feng Liu and Xin Ran
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038702
In the production process of large-diameter seamless steel pipes, the blank heating quality before roll piercing has an important effect on whether subsequently conforming piping is produced. Obtaining accurate pipe blank heating temperature fields is the basis for establishing and optimizing a seamless pipe heating schedule. In this paper, the thermal process in a regenerative heating furnace was studied using FLUENT software, and the distribution laws of the flow field in the furnace and of the temperature field around the pipe blanks were obtained and verified experimentally. The heating furnace for pipe blanks was analyzed from multiple perspectives, including overall flow field, flow fields at different cross sections, and overall temperature field. It was found that the changeover process of the regenerative heating furnace caused the temperature in the upper part of the furnace to fluctuate. Under the pipe blanks, the gas flow was relatively thin, and the flow velocity was relatively low, facilitating the formation of a viscous turbulent layer and thereby inhibiting heat exchange around the pipe blanks. The mutual interference between the gas flow from burners and the return gas from the furnace tail flue led to different flow velocity directions at different positions, and such interference was relatively evident in the middle part of the furnace. A temperature "layering" phenomenon occurred between the upper and lower parts of the pipe blanks. The study in this paper has some significant usefulness for in-depth exploration of the characteristics of regenerative heating furnaces for steel pipes.
TOPICS: Temperature, Steel, Flow (Dynamics), Numerical analysis, Pipes, Furnaces, Heating, Blanks, Gas flow, Cross section (Physics), Heat, Turbulence, Manufacturing, Flues, Computer software
research-article  
Bijan Nouri, Marc Röger, Nicole Janotte and Christoph Hilgert
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038706
A clamp-on measurement system for flexible and accurate fluid temperature measurements for turbulent flows with Re numbers higher than 30,000 is presented in this paper. This non invasive system can be deployed without interference with the fluid flow while delivering the high accuracies necessary for performance and acceptance testing for power plants in terms of measurement accuracy and position. The system is experimentally validated in the fluid flow of a solar thermal parabolic trough collector test bench, equipped with built-in sensors as reference. Its applicability under industrial conditions is demonstrated at the 50-MWel AndaSol-3 parabolic trough solar power plant in Spain. A function based on large experimental data correcting the temperature gradient between the measured clamp-on sensor and actual fluid temperature is developed, achieving an uncertainty below ±0.7 K (2s) for fluid temperatures up to 400°C. In addition, the experimental results are used to validate a numerical model. Based on the results of this model, a general dimensionless correction function for a wider range of application scenarios is derived. The clamp-on system, together with the dimensionless correction function, supports numerous combinations of fluids, pipe materials, insulations, geometries and operation conditions and should be useful in a variety of industrial applications of the power and chemical industry where temporal non-invasive fluid temperature measurement is needed with good accuracy. The comparison of the general dimensionless correction function with measurement data indicates a measurement uncertainty below 1 K (2s).
TOPICS: Clamps (Tools), Fluids, Temperature measurement, Turbulence, Sensors, Fluid dynamics, Temperature, Parabolic troughs, Uncertainty, Measurement uncertainty, Temperature gradient, Chemical industry, Accuracy and precision, Pipes, Power stations, Solar energy, Testing, Measurement systems, Solar power stations, Computer simulation
research-article  
Alaa Mahfouz, Waleed Abdelmaksoud and Essam E. Khalil
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038707
The aim of this study is to simulate and analyze the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics for a tube of a heat exchanger fitted with inserts. The purpose of these inserts is to increase the heat transfer rate and improve the thermal performance of the heat exchanger. In the present study, several types of tube inserts are simulated via a commercial CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solver. These insert types are presented as a single tube fitted with twisted tapes, twisted tapes with rod, and helical twisted tapes with rod. To assess the performance of each insert type, the CFD results are presented in dimensionless form such as the Nusselt number (Nu), friction factor (f), and performance evaluation criteria (PEC). Additionally, useful dimensionless correlations are developed and presented in this paper to predict the performance of the heat exchanger over a wide range of Reynolds number and tape twist ratio. To ensure accurate CFD results, grid independence test and model validation study against previously reported experimental data were performed.
TOPICS: Fluid dynamics, Heat transfer, Heat exchangers, Computational fluid dynamics, Model validation, Performance evaluation, Reynolds number, Friction
research-article  
Sumita Debbarma and Rahul Dev Misra
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038708
The effect of iron (Fe) nanoparticles additive to biodiesel blend and diesel fuels in terms of engine performance and emission characteristics is experimentally investigated in a stationary diesel engine. A fuel additive iron nanoparticle is suspended in the neat diesel (D) and 20% palm biodiesel blend with diesel (PB20) using ultra-sonication process and these modified fuels are termed as D + 50Fe and PB20 + 50Fe, respectively. Experiments are conducted on a developed diesel experimental setup to evaluate the engine performance and exhaust emissions for the fuels, namely D, PB20, D + 50Fe, and PB20 + 50Fe. Results indicate that the density, viscosity, and calorific value of the fuel blends tend to increase with the addition of nanoparticles in the blends. BTE gets enhanced by about 2.06% for PB20 + 50Fe and about 0.36% for D + 50Fe with respect to BTE of PB20 and D respectively. Similarly, BSFC is lowered by 2.71% for PB20 + 50Fe and by 1.55% for D + 50Fe. Emission of regulated parameters, i.e. HC, CO, and NOx emission shows a reducing trend. Volumetric reduction in the emissions of HC by 3-6%, CO by 6-12%, and NOx by 4-11.16% are observed.
TOPICS: Fuels, Nanoparticles, Diesel, Diesel engines, Exhaust systems, Iron, Emissions, Biodiesel, Nitrogen oxides, Engines, Density, Viscosity
research-article  
Subrata Bhowmik, Rajsekhar Panua, Subrata Kumar Ghosh, Durbadal Debroy and Abhishek Paul
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038709
This study investigates the potential of oxygenated additive (Ethanol) on adulterated Diesel fuel on the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a single cylinder Diesel engine. Based on the engine experimental data, two Artificial Intelligence (AI) models viz. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Adaptive-Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) have been modeled for predicting brake thermal efficiency (Bth), brake specific energy consumption (BSEC), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), unburnt hydrocarbon (UBHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) with Engine load (%),Kerosene (vol%) and Ethanol (vol%) as input parameters. Both the proposed AI models have the capacity for predicting input-output paradigms of Diesel-kerosene-ethanol (Diesosenol) blends with high accuracy. A (3-9-5) topology with Levenberg-Marquardt feed forward back propagation (trainlm) learning algorithm has been observed to be the ideal model for ANN. The comparative study of the two AI models demonstrated ANFIS predicted results have higher accuracy than the ANN with a maximum RANFIS/RANN value of 1.000534.
TOPICS: Artificial intelligence, Cylinders, Diesel engines, Emissions, Artificial neural networks, Ethanol, Brakes, Diesel, Engines, Stress, Algorithms, Carbon, Energy consumption, Thermal efficiency, Exhaust systems, Feedforward control, Nitrogen, Topology, Nitrogen oxides
Technical Brief  
Reza Baghaei Lakeh, Richard E. Wirz, Pirouz Kavehpour and Adrienne S. Lavine
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038587
In this study, turbulent natural convection heat transfer during the charge cycle of an isochoric Thermal Energy Storage system was studied computationally and analytically. The storage fluids considered in this study (supercritical CO2 and liquid toluene) cover a wide range of Rayleigh number. The storage fluids are stored in vertical and sealed storage tubes. The volume of the storage tube is constant and the thermal storage happens in an isochoric process. A computational model was developed and validated to study turbulent natural convection during the charge cycle. The results of this study show that the aspect ratio of the storage tube (L/D) has an important effect on the heat transfer characteristics. The computational results were further utilized to develop a conceptual and dimensionless model that views the thermal storage process as a hot boundary layer that rises along the tube wall and falls in the center to replace the cold fluid in the core. The dimensionless model predicts that dimensionless mean temperature of the storage fluid and average Nusselt number of natural convection are functions of L/D ratio, Rayleigh number, and Fourier number that are combined to form a Buoyancy-Fourier number.
TOPICS: Turbulence, Transients (Dynamics), Natural convection, Thermal energy storage, Storage, Fluids, Heat transfer, Rayleigh number, Cycles, Supercritical carbon dioxide, Boundary layers, Buoyancy, Temperature
research-article  
Umran Ercetin and Nimeti Doner
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038560
The aim of this work is to perform a thermal analysis of the operational conditions of a large-scale roller conveyor furnace in a ceramic factory. The entire furnace was divided into three sub-zones according to the combustion conditions, and the temperature and gas (CO2, H2O vapour, and O2) distributions of each sub-zone were evaluated. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was employed to simulate the flow, temperature profile, and heat transfer. The realizable k - e model was applied for turbulence simulation of the fluid flow coming from the burners. The discrete ordinates model (DOM) and weighted sum of grey gases (WSGG) model were used for simulation of the radiative heat transfer of the furnace. The high accuracy of the simulation methods was validated with the temperature data of the furnace measured by an infrared thermal camera. From the comparisons between the furnace's operating conditions and the numerical simulations, it was concluded that the simulation methods yielded successful results, and relative deviations of up to 22% were observed in the side wall.
TOPICS: Heat transfer, Combustion, Computer simulation, Furnaces, Tunnels, Simulation, Computational fluid dynamics, Temperature, Water, Conveyor systems, Carbon dioxide, Rollers, Temperature profiles, Thermal analysis, Gases, Ceramics, Turbulence, Radiative heat transfer, Fluid dynamics, Flow (Dynamics)
research-article  
Tasawar Hayat, Sadia Ayub, Anum Tanveer and Ahmed Alsaedi
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038564
This study investigates peristaltic transport of Sutterby fluid in an inclined channel. Applied magnetic field is also inclined. Thermal radiation, Joule heating, Soret and Dufour effects are present. The channel boundaries satisfy wall compliant and partial slip conditions. The problem description is simplified by employing long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. Graphical solutions for axial velocity, temperature, concentration and heat transfer coefficient are obtained via built-in numerical approach NDSolve. Similar response of velocity and concentration profiles has been recorded for larger inclination. The results reveal temperature drop with larger thermal radiation. Here radiation and thermal slip increase heat transfer rate.
TOPICS: Joules, Heating, Temperature, Thermal radiation, Heat transfer, Wavelength, Fluids, Radiation (Physics), Magnetic fields, Heat transfer coefficients, Reynolds number
research-article  
Li Yang, Prashant Singh, Kartikeya Tyagi, Jaideep Pandit, Srinath V. Ekkad and Jing Ren
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038538
Rotational effects lead to significant non-uniformity in heat transfer enhancement and this effect is directly proportional to the rotation number (Ro=OD/V). Hence the development of cooling designs which have less dependence on rotation is imperative. This paper studied the effect of rotation on crossflow induced swirl configuration with the goal of demonstrating a new design that has lesser response towards rotational effects. The new design passes coolant from one pass to the second pass through a set of angled holes to induce impingement and swirling flow to generate higher heat transfer coefficients than typical ribbed channels with 180-deg bend between the two passages. Detailed heat transfer coefficients are presented for stationary and rotating conditions using transient liquid crystal thermography. The channel Reynolds number based on the channel hydraulic diameter and channel velocity at inlet/outlet ranged from 25,000 to 100,000. The rotation number ranged from 0 to 0.14. Results show that rotation reduced the heat transfer on both sides of the impingement due to the Coriolis force. The maximum local reduction of heat transfer in the present study was about 30%. Rotation significantly enhanced the heat transfer near the closed end because of the centrifugal force and the 'pumping' effect, which caused local heat transfer enhancements up to 100%. Compared to U-bend two pass channels, impingement channels had advantages in the upstream channel and the end region, but heat transfer performance was not beneficial on the leading side of the downstream channel.
TOPICS: Liquid crystals, Heat transfer, Thermography, Transients (Dynamics), Rotation, Heat transfer coefficients, Design, Swirling flow, Coolants, Cooling, Coriolis force, Centrifugal force, Reynolds number
Technical Brief  
Antonio Campo
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038539
For the analysis of unsteady heat conduction in solid bodies comprising heat exchange by forced convection to neighboring fluids there are two feasible models: 1) the differential model and 2) the lumped capacitance model. With regards to the latter, the suited lumped heat equation is linear. In addition, the lumped Biot number criterion stipulates that < 0.1, where the mean convective coefficient is affected by the imposed fluid velocity. Conversely, when the heat exchange happens by natural convection, the pertinent lumped heat equation is nonlinear because the mean convective coefficient is dependent upon the instantaneous mean temperature in the solid body. Normally, the nonlinear lumped heat equation must be solved with a numerical procedure, such as the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. In addition, the lumped Biot number criterion engages a variable mean convective coefficient: which implies that the lumped Biot number criterion < 0.1 must be modified to < 0.1. For the case of cooling, stands for the maximum mean convective coefficient at the initial temperature Tin and initial time t = 0. Interestingly, by way of a temperature transformation the nonlinear lumped heat equation can be channeled through a nonlinear Bernoulli equation, which admits an exact, analytic solution. Thereby, the exact, analytic solution gives way to the mean temperature distributions T (t) for a class of regular solid bodies: vertical plate, vertical cylinder, horizontal cylinder and sphere, which are constricted to < 0.1.
TOPICS: Fluids, Capacitance, Heat conduction, Natural convection, Heat, Temperature, Cylinders, Runge-Kutta methods, Temperature distribution, Vertical plates, Forced convection, Cooling
research-article  
Aditi Sengupta and P.S. Ghoshdastidar
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038483
This paper presents a comparative numerical study of heat transfer enhancement in steady, laminar, hydrodynamically fully developed flow of water-based ferrofluids under no magnetic field in micro and macro parallel plate channels subjected to constant equal heat fluxes on its top and bottom, considering Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis of ferroparticles in the base fluid. While the microchannel results match very well with the experimental data for water in an equivalent microtube [18], the numerically predicted enhancement factor in ferrofluids is much below that for microtube. However, the parametric study points to possible inaccuracies in the experimental results of Kurtoglu et al. [18] for ferrofluids. The nanoparticle concentration profiles in the microchannel flow reveal that (a) the nanoparticle concentration at the wall increases with axial distance; (b) the wall nanoparticle concentration decreases with increasing heat flux; and (c) the concentration profile of nanoparticles is parabolic at the exit. A comparison of thermally developing flow in microchannel and macrochannel of the same length (0.025 m) indicates that the enhancement factor at the microchannel exit is 1.089 which is only marginally higher than that at the macrochannel exit in the heat flux range of 20 - 80 kW/m2. On the other hand, for the thermally fully developed flow in both microchannel and macrochannel of the same length (0.54 m) the maximum enhancement factor for the macrochannel is 1.7, as compared to 1.1 for the microchannel, in the heat flux range of 1 - 4 kW/m2.
TOPICS: Heat transfer, Flow (Dynamics), Ferrofluids, Microchannels, Nanoparticles, Heat flux, Water, Microchannel flow, Heat, Diffusion (Physics), Fluids, Magnetic fields, Flux (Metallurgy)
research-article  
Tariq Amin Khan and Wei Li
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4038418
This work is dedicated to numerical investigation and optimization of vortex generator's (VG) configuration in a plate-fin channel. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed to study the effect of angle of attack, attach angle (angle between VG and wall) and shape of VG on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics. The flow is assumed as steady state, incompressible and laminar within the range of studied Reynolds numbers (Re = 380 - 1140). The effect of attach angle is highlighted and results show that attach angle of 90o might not necessary for enhancing the heat transfer. The flow structure and heat transfer characteristics of certain cases are analyzed in detail. The parameters of VG are then optimized for maximum heat transfer and minimum pressure drop. The three independent design parameters are considered for the two objective functions. For this purpose, CFD data, response surface methodology (RSM) and a multi-objective optimization algorithm (MOA) are combined. The CFD data are used to train a BRANN (Bayesian-regularized artificial neural network). This in turn is used to drive the MOA to find the optimal parameters of VGs in the form of Pareto front. The optimal values of these parameters are finally presented.
TOPICS: Heat transfer, Generators, Vortices, Flow (Dynamics), Computational fluid dynamics, Design, Optimization, Fluid dynamics, Computer simulation, Reynolds number, Algorithms, Artificial neural networks, Pareto optimization, Pressure drop, Response surface methodology, Shapes, Steady state, Trains
Errata  
Mohsen Ali Mandegari, Somayeh Farzad and Hassan Pahlavanzadeh
J. Thermal Sci. Eng. Appl   doi: 10.1115/1.4032332
TOPICS: Exergy, Optimization, Wheels

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